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Important Fitness Facts Students Should Know. Benefits of Warming Up Helps prevent overheating by starting the sweating process. Helps prevent overheating.

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Presentation on theme: "Important Fitness Facts Students Should Know. Benefits of Warming Up Helps prevent overheating by starting the sweating process. Helps prevent overheating."— Presentation transcript:

1 Important Fitness Facts Students Should Know

2 Benefits of Warming Up Helps prevent overheating by starting the sweating process. Helps prevent overheating by starting the sweating process. Improves range of motion. Improves range of motion. Psychologically prepares one for the activity. Psychologically prepares one for the activity.

3 Importance of Warming Up Optimizes performance and safety by increasing the following: Blood flow Blood flow Muscle temperature Muscle temperature Enzyme activity Enzyme activity Nerve impulse conduction Nerve impulse conduction Dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin Dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin Availability of energy sources Availability of energy sources

4 Importance of Cooling Down Helps remove waste products in the blood. Helps remove waste products in the blood. Reduces the chances of getting delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Reduces the chances of getting delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Helps prevent the pooling of blood in the extremities, which reduces the amount of blood supplied to the brain and could lead to dizziness and fainting. Helps prevent the pooling of blood in the extremities, which reduces the amount of blood supplied to the brain and could lead to dizziness and fainting. Slowly returns breathing, heart rate, and body temperature back to resting levels. Slowly returns breathing, heart rate, and body temperature back to resting levels.

5 Stretching and Performance While it is important to warm up before engaging in activities, static stretching can reduce performance by changing the resting position of muscle fibers. This decreases the number of connections between actin and myosin, reducing the amount of force that can be generated. Instead, one should use dynamic stretching, utilizing movements from the activity they will be performing.

6 How to Improve Flexibility Flexibility is best improved through static stretching. Flexibility is best improved through static stretching. Performing static stretching at least 3 days a week but daily is preferable. Performing static stretching at least 3 days a week but daily is preferable. Warm up prior to stretching. Warm up prior to stretching. Hold stretches for at least seconds. Hold stretches for at least seconds. Do not stretch to the point of pain. Do not stretch to the point of pain. Never bounce as this can cause damage to the muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Never bounce as this can cause damage to the muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

7 Dietary Guidelines for Americans FemalesMales 4-8 years1,200 calories1,400 calories 9-13 years1,600 calories1,800 calories years1,800 calories2,200 calories

8 Are Diets a Healthy Way to Lose Weight? No! The brain mainly utilizes carbohydrates for energy. When dieting, the body goes into starvation mode and saves carbohydrate stores for the brain. As a result, the body must breakdown protein and fats for its energy needs. The breakdown of muscle mass (protein) lowers the person’s daily caloric expenditure (metabolism). Once the person stops the diet, they have lower caloric needs causing them to not only gain the weight back but often more weight than pre-diet. People should aim to only lose 1-2 pounds per week through healthy changes in their diet and exercise patterns. No! The brain mainly utilizes carbohydrates for energy. When dieting, the body goes into starvation mode and saves carbohydrate stores for the brain. As a result, the body must breakdown protein and fats for its energy needs. The breakdown of muscle mass (protein) lowers the person’s daily caloric expenditure (metabolism). Once the person stops the diet, they have lower caloric needs causing them to not only gain the weight back but often more weight than pre-diet. People should aim to only lose 1-2 pounds per week through healthy changes in their diet and exercise patterns. See more healthy ways to lose weight from the CDC See more healthy ways to lose weight from the CDC

9 Does "Skinny" = Healthy? Not necessarily! People who look skinny can still be unhealthy on the inside and people who look overweight can still be very healthy. There are many different body types that people are genetically prone to have. Instead of aiming for a look, exercise and eat right for the health benefits. It’s not what the scale says that matters, it is how you feel.

10 Are Supplements Safe? Food supplements are unregulated. This means that they are not tested by the government for safety or for accuracy of the products’ claims. Studies promoting a particular supplement are often funded by the companies selling the product and may not be reliable. With unsupported claims and safety issues, supplements are generally an unnecessary cost.

11 Should I Take Protein Supplements? It is not necessary to use protein supplements when doing resistance training. Only elite athletes and serious weight lifters will benefit from these supplements. Instead, increase your daily caloric intake to offset the calories expended during exercise. This will automatically raise the amount of protein you ingest. For example, if your protein intake is 20% of your diet, increasing your caloric intake 500 calories will increase protein consumption by 25 grams without taking protein supplements. This is important because besides being an unnecessary cost, consuming too much protein can cause dehydration and decrease glycogen replenishment.

12 Does Resistance Training Make You Bulky? It takes extreme dedication in both diet and exercise to increase muscle mass. There is no need for men or women to worry about becoming too muscular. Resistance exercise should be incorporated into activity routines because it increases bone density, resting metabolism (helps regulate weight), and overall health.

13 Why Do Strength Gains Taper Off? Initial gains in muscle strength are a result of increased neuromuscular activity, not increased muscle mass. During the first few weeks of training, motor neurons begin recruiting more muscle fibers, resulting in increased strength. Students should be aware of this so that they don’t have unrealistic expectations and let downs after their performance gains begin to decline.

14 What Causes Soreness the Next Day? Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the muscle soreness/stiffness that is felt hours after exercise. This is a normal response to unusual exertion and is part of an adaptation process that leads to greater stamina and strength as the muscles recover and rebuild.

15 What Causes Soreness the Next Day? Delayed onset muscle soreness is common when beginning an exercise program or adding new activities. DOMS can be minimized through a consistent and regular exercise program.

16 Why Does My Side Hurt When I Run? Researchers believe that the side stitch is caused by stretching the ligaments that extend from the diaphragm to the internal organs, particularly the liver. Exhaling when the right foot hits the ground causes greater forces on the liver (which is on the right side just below the rib cage).

17 To Prevent a Side Stitch To prevent a side stitch, take even, deep breaths while running. Shallow breathing tends to increase the risk of cramping because the diaphragm is always slightly raised and never lowers far enough to allow the ligaments to relax. To prevent a side stitch, take even, deep breaths while running. Shallow breathing tends to increase the risk of cramping because the diaphragm is always slightly raised and never lowers far enough to allow the ligaments to relax. Time your eating. Having food in your stomach during a workout may increase cramping by creating more force on the ligaments (avoid eating one to two hours before a workout). Time your eating. Having food in your stomach during a workout may increase cramping by creating more force on the ligaments (avoid eating one to two hours before a workout). Drink before exercise; dehydration can increase muscle cramps. Drink before exercise; dehydration can increase muscle cramps.

18 To Stop a Side Stitch Stop running and place your hand into the right side of your belly and push up, lifting the liver slightly. Inhale and exhale evenly as you push up. Stop running and place your hand into the right side of your belly and push up, lifting the liver slightly. Inhale and exhale evenly as you push up. Stretch. Raise your right arm straight up and lean toward the left. Hold for 30 seconds, release, then stretch the other side. Stretch. Raise your right arm straight up and lean toward the left. Hold for 30 seconds, release, then stretch the other side. Slow down your pace until pain lessens. Slow down your pace until pain lessens. Breathe deep to stretch the diaphragm. Breathe deep to stretch the diaphragm. Massage or press on the area with pain. Bend forward to stretch the diaphragm and ease the pain. Massage or press on the area with pain. Bend forward to stretch the diaphragm and ease the pain.

19 Achievement Goal Orientation Competitive Goal Orientation: Comparing your performance against others. Competitive Goal Orientation: Comparing your performance against others. Other peoples performance is not in your control. Other peoples performance is not in your control. If you don’t win, you lose. If you don’t win, you lose. Mastery Goal Orientation: Comparing your performance against yourself Mastery Goal Orientation: Comparing your performance against yourself Linked to higher levels of success. Linked to higher levels of success. Is in your control. Is in your control. You can lose an event but still improve your performance. You can lose an event but still improve your performance.

20 Physical Activity vs Physical Fitness You have more control of your physical activity levels than your fitness levels. You have more control of your physical activity levels than your fitness levels. Fitness levels affected by factors outside of your control: Fitness levels affected by factors outside of your control: Age, Maturation, Heredity, Available food, etc Age, Maturation, Heredity, Available food, etc People who focus on their physical activity levels are more successful than those who focus on their fitness levels. People who focus on their physical activity levels are more successful than those who focus on their fitness levels.


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