3FunctionsDelivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.Exhalation and InhalationSupplies the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body through breathing
4Nasal Cavities/Paranasal Sinuse Filter, warm, humidify air, and detect smells.Cilia and mucus along the inside wall of the nasal cavity trap and remove dust and pathogens from the air as it flows through the nasal cavity. The cilia move the mucus down the nasal cavity to the pharynx, where it can be swallowed.Two Parts:The respiratory segment is lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The conchae are located in this region. The respiratory segment has a very vascularized lamina propria allowing the venous plexuses of the conchal mucosa to engorge with blood, restricting airflow and causing air to be directed to the other side of the noseThe olfactory segment is lined with a specialized type of pseudostratified columnar epithelium, known as olfactory epithelium, which contains receptors for the sense of the smell
5PharynxCone-shaped passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx chamber serves both respiratory and digestive functions. Thick fibers of muscle and connective tissue attach the pharynx to the base of the skull and surrounding structures. Both circular and longitudinal muscles occur in the walls of this organ; the circular muscles form constrictions that help push food to the esophagus and prevent air from being swallowed, while the longitudinal fibers lift the walls of the pharynx during swallowing.
6Larynx Protects the opening to the trachea and contains vocal chords Four basic anatomic components: a cartilaginous skeleton, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, and a mucosal lining.Functions in deglutition (swallowing), respiration (breathing), and phonation (voice production)
7Sound ProductionSound production occurs due to the vibration of the mucosa at the inner edge of each vocal cord.Final modification of the voice occurs in the mouth, nose and throat, where the tongue, palate, cheek and lips are involved in articulationIn both genders, children’s vocal cords are relatively narrow and short, so the vibrations are rapid and produce high-pitched sounds. At puberty, when testosterone levels increase in boys, the vocal cords elongate and thicken. As a result, cord vibrations became slower and produce lower pitched, deeper sounds. As a general role, due to the influence of testosterone, adult males have thicker and longer vocal cords than females. This anatomical difference is the primary reason for gender differences in voice.
8Trachea/BronchiWindpipe, tubular structure that delivers air to the bronchial treeFilters air, branches into the bronchi, traps particles in mucus; cartilages keep airway open.Bronchi are two air tubes that branch off of the trachea and carry air directly into the lungs.
9LungsResponsible for air movement through volume changes resulting from movements or ribs and diaphragm; includes airways and alveoli.Separated by the mediastinum) the central space in the thorax where the heart is found)Lined by a double serous membrane known as the pleural membrane.
10DiaphragmBreathing starts with a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs called the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This movement enlarges the space that the lungs are in. This larger space pulls air into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out. The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing
11Fun FactsWhy do we yawn?When you are sleepy/drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen form the air. This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of oxygen and sends a message that causes u to take a deep long breath- a yawn.Why do we sneeze?Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body’s way of removing hazardous materials from the (sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things can irritate the mucus membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are some of many things that may cause you to sneeze.Why do we get hiccups?Sudden movements of the diaphragm. It is involuntary. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten too fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups.
12AsthmaGenerally more common in children than adults. Children often out grow asthma by the time they reach adulthood, but this is not always the case.An asthma attack involves muscle contractions of the airways, which reduce airflow and cause shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing. Imtants such as dust, pollens, animal hair or cigarette smoke, and exercise can trigger asthma.While asthma can’t be cured, mild symptoms can be controlled by use of prescribed inhaled medication. Serious or severe asthma attacks require professional medical attention, but with on going treatment, most asthmatics manage the disease and live normal, long lives.
13Lung CancerLung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women.Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer.avoid breathing in the smoke from other people's cigarettes, cigars, or pipes.There are two main types of lung cancer:Non-small cell cancer- (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer.Small cell lung cancer- makes up about 20% of all lung cancer cases.
15Inhalation/Exhalation Inhalation is the process of taking air into the lungs. For this to occur, the air pressure inside the lungs must be lower than that of the external atmosphere as air flows from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. This is achieved by the contraction of the external intercostal muscles and the relaxation of the internal intercostals which acts to pull the ribcage upwards and outwards, hence, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.Exhalation is the process of expelling air out of the lungs. For this to occur, the air pressure inside the lungs must be higher than that of the external atmosphere as air flows from areas of higher pressure to ones of lower pressure. This is achieved by the relaxation of the external intercostal muscles which bring the rib cage inwards and the diaphragm bulges upwards (recoiling to its original shape) respectively. The internal intercostal muscles contract so as to pull the rib cage further inwards, hence, decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity and that of the lungs which, in turn, creates high pressure in the lungs; hence air is pushed out of lungs. In passive breathing, the movements of the diaphragm are responsible - the ribs aren't needed.
16Gas ExchangeGas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the bloodstream and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli.Gas exchange provides a needed fuel (O2) for metabolism to occur and a means to expel the gaseous byproduct (CO2) of metabolism from the body. Without gas exchange the body would not function. The hindrance of gas exchange by disease, disorder, or chemicals can slow body functions and even cause death.During inspiration, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the lung (105 mm Hg) is higher than that in the arteries of the alveoli (40 mmHg). This pressure difference allows O2 to transfer into the blood stream. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the lung (40 mmHg) is less than the arterial partial pressure of the alveoli (46 mmHg). This pressure difference allows carbon dioxide to diffuse into the lung and eventually into the atmosphere. The ventilation of the lungs allows for the continual renewal of imbalance and need for breathing and metabolism to continue.
17Gas ExchangeThe function of the respiratory system is to exchange two gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide. The exchange takes place in the millions of alveoli in the lungs and the capillaries that envelop them. As shown below, inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli.
18Working with other Systems The Digestive System and Respiratory SystemThe well-known digestive system has a basic but important function. First, food goes down to the throat, and leads to the digestive system. What makes this path is the epiglottis, which opens when air comes through, and closes when food comes down. The digestive system breaks down food into simpler substances that the body can use including proteins. This helps the respiratory system because the lungs need nutrients. The respiratory system helps the digestive system by giving oxygen to the digestive system.The Skeletal System and Respiratory SystemThe skeletal system is very important. This system is responsible for protecting the inner body. The skeletal system is like a metal shield covering the body. This system helps the respiratory system by protecting the lungs.The Circulatory System and Respiratory SystemThe circulatory system is very useful. This system transports the food nutrients, and oxygen to the body cells. It also delivers of carbon dioxide and waste products. This helps the respiratory system by transporting nutrients to keep the lungs clean, and healthy. In return the respiratory system allows air to keep the circulatory system going.
19(Cont.) The Muscular System and Respiratory System In the human body there are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. The muscular system helps push air come into and leave the respiratory system through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, which is a muscle. The respiratory system has the lungs that deliver air to the muscles.The Nervous System and Respiratory SystemIt controls your bodies’ activities. Plus, it helps the respiratory system by allowing you to feel and know when you are breathing and have somewhat control of it. The nervous system also triggers you to whine or scream when you get physically hurt.