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Over the Counter Contraceptive Methods Male & Female Condoms, The Sponge, and Spermicide.

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Presentation on theme: "Over the Counter Contraceptive Methods Male & Female Condoms, The Sponge, and Spermicide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Over the Counter Contraceptive Methods Male & Female Condoms, The Sponge, and Spermicide

2 What is a Male Condom? OTC, barrier methods, reversible Made of thin latex or plastic worn on the penis during intercourse to collect semen Available dry or lubricated

3 How well do they work? Perfect use: 98% Typical use: 85% Good protection against HIV and reduces risk of other STDs such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, HPV, and herpes

4 Male condoms continued… Advantages: allows men to share responsibility, no side effects, easy to get, can be used with other methods, can help relieve premature ejaculation, STD protection Disadvantages: They can break, feeling may be reduced, interrupts lovemaking Cost: $0.50 or less, sometimes FREE

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6 The Female Condom Plastic pouch w/ flexible rings at each end Inserted into the vagina like a diaphragm Ring at the open end stays outside

7 The female condom continued… Effectiveness: 79% - 95% Advantages: no fittings, can be used by people allergic to latex Disadvantages: Irritation, slip into vagina, noisy Cost: $2.50

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9 The Sponge Reserve for 1,000 mg of nonoxynol-9, that is released into the vagina over 24 hour Polyurethane foam traps and absorbs semen Acts as a physical barrier between sperm and the cervix

10 The sponge continued… Thoroughly wet sponge w/water before insertion, leave in place for six hours after sex Effectiveness: 84% to 91% Adv: 24 hour protection, no hormones, not messy, easy to purchase/use Disadv: irritation, no STD protection Cost: pkg of 3 or 12 ($9 - $35)

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12 Spermicide Foams, creams, jellies, film, suppositories Inserted into vagina 10 minutes before intercourse (lasts approximately 1 hour) Block entrance to uterus and immobilizes sperm

13 Spermicide continued… Effectiveness: 71% - 85% Adv: Easy to obtain, no prescriptions or fittings Disadv: Messy, no STD protection, Irritation Cost: $8 - $16

14 APPLICATION

15 Other Rx, Behavioral, and Surgical Contraceptive Methods Diaphragm, Cervical Cap, Abstinence, Withdrawal, Outercourse, Tubal Ligation, and Vasectomy

16 The Diaphragm & Cervical Cap Reversible, prescription, barrier methods of birth control Soft latex or silicone barriers that fit over the cervix Used with a spermicide cream or jelly

17 Diaphragm Shallow dome shaped cup with a flexible rim Fits securely in the vagina to cover the cervix

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19 Cervical Cap Thimble shaped and smaller than the diaphragm Fits securely onto the cervix

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21 How do they work? Put 1 TBS of spermicide, then insert into the vagina to cover the cervix before intercourse  Blocks entrance to the uterus while spermicide immobilizes sperm, preventing it from joining an egg Diaphragm: left in place for up to 24 hours Cervical Cap: left in place for up to 48 hours

22 Diaphragm and CC continued… Effectiveness: Diaph = 94% & CC = 91% Advantages: No effect on natural hormones, easily transported, does not interrupt sex play, and cannot be felt by either partner Disadvantages: Require a fitting/refitting, insertion may be difficult, no STD protection Cost: Exam = $50 - $200, Supplies = $15 - $50, and Spermicide = $8 - $17 per kit

23 Continuous Abstinence Not having intercourse with a partner Effectiveness: 100% Advantages: no medical or hormonal side effects Disadvantages: people may find it difficult to abstain for long periods of time and its often ended without being prepared Cost: FREE!

24 Withdrawal A man pulls his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates Effectiveness: 73% - 96% Advantages: can be used when no other method is available Disadvantages: requires great self control, not for sexually inexperienced, men who ejaculate prematurely, or teens Cost: Free

25 Outercourse Sex play without intercourse (kissing, masturbation, massage, body-to-body rubbing, fantasy, and oral sex play) Effectiveness: nearly 100% for pregnancy, but STDs are still quite possible Advantages: no medical or hormonal side effects, increase intimacy between partners can be used when no other BC method is available Disadvantages: outercourse may lead to unintended intercourse Cost: Free

26 Hormonal Contraceptives

27 Implants Norplant (most effective method of BC)  Six plastic implants inserted under skin of upper arm  Effectiveness: Over 99% for up to 7 years  Advantages: Continuous long-lasting  Disadvantages: Irregular bleeding, acne, skin rash, change in appetite, weight gain, depression, no protection against STD’s  Cost: $500-$750 and $100-$200 for removal  No longer available, but new and improved Norplant Approved by the US in mid-2006, NO LONGER AVAILABLE!! Dangerous Side effects….

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29 The Shot Depo-Provera & Lunelle  Injected into the buttock or arm every 12 weeks  Effectiveness: Over 99% for 12 weeks  Advantages: Effective for 12 weeks, no medicine to take every day, helps prevent cancer of the lining of the uterus  Disadvantages: Irregular or total loss of bleeding, change of appetite, weight gain, depression, loss of BMD  Cost: $50 for injection + office visit ($35-$125)  NEW: Depo-subQ Provera 104 (less invasive)

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31 The Pill Taken daily in a monthly series Effectiveness: Over 99% w/ perfect use for 1 month Advantages: Regular and shorter periods, reduced menstrual flow and cramping, less acne, fewer symptoms of PMS, many pills to choose from Disadvantages: Must take pill every day (same time), no protection from STD’s, weight gain, irregular bleeding, nausea, changes in mood Cost: $20-$35 a month (per pack) Seasonale: 84 day regimen with 7 days off Lybrel: 365 day regimen; possibly available in 2006  Long term effects are unknown

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33 THE PILL CASE

34 The Ring Nuva Ring  Small, flexible ring inserted into the vagina for 3 weeks and taken out for the 4 th week  Effectiveness: Over 99% with perfect use for 1 month  Advantages: does not involve taking a daily pill, does not require a “fitting,” does not require the use of spermicide  Disadvantages: increased vaginal discharge, vaginal irritation or infection, irregular bleeding, weight gain, no protection against STD’s  Cost: $20-$35 a month (similar to The Pill)

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36 The Patch Ortho Evra  Thin, plastic patch that is applied to the buttocks, stomach, upper outer arm, or upper torso once a week for 3 weeks, then 1 week off  Effectiveness: Over 99% w/perfect use for 1 mo  Advantages: Does not involve a daily pill, regular and shorter periods, less acne, less cramping  Disadvantages: Skin reactions, problems with contact lens use- a change in vision or ability to wear contact lenses, irregular bleeding, STD’s  Cost: Similar to other monthly methods ($20-$35 a month)

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38 The IUD Para Gard & Mirena  Para Gard contains copper and Mirena contains natural hormones  Prevent fertilization of an egg by affecting the way the sperm or eggs move  Effectiveness: Over 99% for 10 years with Para Gard and 5 years with Mirena  Advantages: Long term protection that does not involve a daily pill  Disadvantages: Cramping may be greater, periods may be heavier and last longer, no STD protection  Cost: $175-$400 for exam, insertion, and follow-up

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