Presentation on theme: "Chest X-Ray Review. Why order a CXR? SYMPTOMS: Bad or persistent cough Chest pain Chest injury Coughing up blood Fever Shortness of breath S/P fall."— Presentation transcript:
Chest X-Ray Review
Why order a CXR? SYMPTOMS: Bad or persistent cough Chest pain Chest injury Coughing up blood Fever Shortness of breath S/P fall
Why order a CXR? Pleural effusion Pneumothorax Hemothorax Pulmonary embolus Trauma Monitoring chest drainage TB Lung cancer Chest pain (MI?) Hypertension Screening Pneumonia COPD Asthma
Normal Chest X-Ray Compare symmetry Review organs ( bones, lungs, heart ) in sequence Left to Right then… Top to Bottom Random free search Recognition of abnormal first requires knowledge of normal. Over diagnosis of normal variation may be more serious than omission & may lead to needless & harmful therapy.
Chest X-Ray Findings Is heart enlarged or normal? Signs of heart failure and fluid overload? Does patient have pneumonia or collapsed lung? Is there evidence of emphysema? Are there findings of an aortic aneurysm? Is there fluid in the sac that surrounds the lung? Is there free air under the diaphragm? Is there a tumor in the lung that could represent cancer?
The Normal Chest X-Ray Systematically evaluate chest wall, mediastinum, lungs, pleural space, heart, large arteries, ribs & diaphragm. Also evaluate neck, axilla, thyroid gland & abdomen What does air under diaphragm signify? What is best position for this diagnosis?
The Normal Chest X-Ray You can recognize air, water & bone density on chest x-ray Lung fields appear dark because of air. 99% of the lung is air.
The Normal Chest X-Ray The pulmonary vasculature, interstitial space, constitutes 1% of the lung Gives a lacy lung pattern. Most disease states replace air with a pathological process which usually is a liquid density and appears white.
Poor Quality CXR Supine position Decreases lung volume, increased heart size Basilar infiltrates & interstitial spaces accentuated Increases venous return to the heart Semi-upright position Enlarges normal structures Changes air-fluid levels Failure to hold breath Lung structures & diaphragm blurred Expiration film Basilar infiltrates & interstitial spaces accentuated Increased heart size
Missed Diagnoses What is wrong with this lung tissue??? Nothing!! But the clavicle is fractured! 10% of all x-ray interpretations have errors Especially if there are multiple problems, don’t focus on the most obvious abnormality!
Systematic CXR Interpretation IDENTIFICATION Correct patient Correct date & time Correct examination Right vs. Left side Comparison film TECHNIQUE Complete exam? All views Entire anatomical area included? Projection Is the film AP or PA? The width of heart & mediastinum larger on AP film Position
Systematic CXR Interpretation TECHNIQUE, cont. Penetration Over-penetrated dark films can obscure subtle pathologies Under-penetrated white films may given impression of diffuse increased density TECHNIQUE, cont. Inspiration Normal, erect, inspiratory CXR shows 9.5-10.5 ribs. Less inspiration appears diffusely denser Diaphragms elevated causing heart & mediastinum to appear enlarged
Systematic CXR Interpretation Order of exam is important. Start with " less significant " Tendency to stop looking as soon as find pathology Identify atelectasis behind heart shadow! Don’t notice tip of ET tube is in right main stem bronchus, causing the atelectasis!
Systematic CXR Interpretation TECHNIQUE, cont. Rotation Determined by distance between spinous process & medial clavicle Affects heart size & shape, aortic tortuosity, mediastinal widening, density of lung fields
Systematic CXR Interpretation INTERPRETATION Extraneous material Contrast Lines, tubes, clips All properly located? Soft tissues Asymmetry Calcifications Diaphragms & Below Free air Dilated bowel Abnormal position INTERPRETATION Bones Fracture, dislocation Mineralization Lung fields Asymmetry Consolidation Nodules, lesions Heart Size & shape Cardiothoracic ratio
Systematic CXR Interpretation INTERPRETATION Mediastinum Width Masses Contour Hila Asymmetry Vessel aneurysm Trachea & carina INTERPRETATION Pulmonary vascularity Taper at periphery Narrow toward upper lobes with erect film Asymmetry Interstitial markings Very fine If indistinct, prominent suspect edema, fibrosis
CONSOLIDATION Alveolar space filled with inflammatory exudate WBC, bacteria, plasma, and debris
Congestive Heart Failure Increased heart size: cardiothoracic ratio >0.5 Large hila with indistinct markings Fluid in interlobar fissures Pleural effusions, alveolar edema
ARDS Congestion Interstitial and alveolar edema Collapsed or distended alveoli Bilateral