Presentation on theme: "The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:
1The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
2Functions of the Respiratory System Air DistributorGas exchangerFilters, warms, and humidifies airInfluences speechAllows for sense of smell
3Divisions of the Respiratory System Upper respiratory tract (outside thorax)NoseNasal CavitySinusesPharynxLarynx
4Divisions of the Respiratory System Lower respiratory tract (within thorax)TracheaBronchial TreeLungs
5Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract Nose - warms and moistens airPalantine bone separates nasal cavity from mouth.Cleft palate - Palantine bone does not form correctly, difficulty in swallowing and speaking.Septum - separates right and left nostrilsrich blood supply = nose bleeds.Sinuses - 4 air containing spaces – open or drain into nose - (lowers weight of skull).
6Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract Pharynx - (throat)Base of skull to esophagus3 divisionsNasopharynx - behind nose to soft palate.Adenoids swell and block.Oropharynx - behind mouth, soft palate to hyoid bone.tonsilsLaryngopharynx - hyoid bone to esophagus.
7Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract Pharynx Continued Changes shape to allow for vowel sounds = phonation.
8Structures of the Lower Respiratory Tract Larynx - voice boxRoot of tongue to upper end of trachea.Made of cartilage2 pairs of foldsVestibular - false vocal cordsTrue vocal cords
9Structures of the Lower Respiratory Tract larynx cont… Thyroid cartilage - adam’s apple - larger in males due to testosterone.Epiglottis - flap of skin (hatch) on trachea, moves when swallowing and speaking.closes off trachea when swallowing food
10Structures of the Lower Respiratory Tract Trachea (windpipe)Larynx to bronchiConsists of smooth cartilage and C shaped rings of cartilage.Tracheostomy - cutting of an opening in trachea to allow breathing.
11Structures of the Lower Respiratory Tract BronchiTubes that branch off trachea and enter into lungsCiliatedBranches: Primary bronchi—secondary bronchi—tertiary bronchi—bronchiolesBronchioles branch into microscopic alveolar ducts. Terminate into alveolar sacsGas exchange with blood occurs in sacs.
15Respiratory Physiology Pulmonary Ventilation = breathingMechanismMovement of gases through a pressure gradient - hi to low.When atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg) is greater than lung pressure ---- air flows in = inspiration.When lung pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure air flows out = expiration.
16Respiratory Physiology Pressure gradients are established by changes in thoracic cavity.increase size in thorax = a decrease in pressure --- air moves in.Decrease size in thorax = increase in pressure --- air moves out.
18Inspiration-contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles
19Expirationrelaxation of diaphragm and intercostal muscles
20Volumes of Air Exchange Tidal volume - amount of air exhaled normally after a typical inspiration. Normal - about 500 mlExpiratory Reserve volume - additional amount of air forcibly expired after tidal expiration ( ml).Inspiratory Reserve volume - (deep breath) amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled over and above normal.Residual volume - amount of air that stays trapped in the alveoli (about 1.2 liters).
21Volumes of Air Exchange Vital capacity - the largest volume of air an individual can move in and out of the lungs.Vital capacity = sum of IRV+TV+ERVDepends of many factorssize of thoracic cavityposturevolume of blood in lungs congestive heart failure, emphysema, disease, etc…
22Volumes of Air Exchange Eupnea - normal quiet breathing, breaths per minute.Hyperpnea - increase in breathing to meet an increased demand by body for oxygen.Hyperventilation - increase in pulmonary ventilation in excess of the need for oxygen.Someone hysterical Breathe intoexertion paper bag.Hypoventilation - decrease in pulmonary ventilation.Apnea - temporary cessation of breathing at the end of normal expiration.
23Heimlich ManeuverLifesaving technique that is used to open a windpipe that is suddenly obstructed.Air already in lungs used to expel object.
24Heimlich Maneuver Technique - Conscious victim Ask the victim if he/she can talkStand behind victim and wrap your arms around their waist.Make a fist with one hand and grasp it with the other hand.Place thumb side of fist below xiphoid process and above navel.Thrust your fist in and upward - about 4 times.DO NOT press on ribs or sternum
25Heimlich Maneuver Technique - Unconscious victim Catch victim if they begin to fall - place on floor face up.Straddle hipsPlace one hand on top of other on the victims abdomen - above navel and below xiphoid process.Forceful upward thrusts with heel of hand - several times if necessary.
26Review Questions1 Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?A. influence speechB. Distribution of oxygen to cellsC. Filtration of airD. Warming of airB
272The common name for the trachea is _______Windpipe
283The structure known as the Adam’s Apple located in neck is the _____Thyroid Cartilage
294 D The smallest branches of the bronchial tree are the Primary bronchiSecondary bronchiTertiary bronchiBronchiolesD
305 The flap or opening to the trachea is the Larynx Pharynx Epiglottis Vocal cords
316The structure that separates the right and left nasal cavities is the ____________Septum
327The incorrect formation of the palantine bone during gestation is known as a __________Cleft Palate
33During inspiration which of the following does not occur? 8During inspiration which of thefollowing does not occur?Diaphragm contractsIntercostals relaxDiaphragm flattensSize of thorax increasesB
34Which of the following activities is the best analogy of respiration? 9Which of the following activities is thebest analogy of respiration?Exchanging giftsGiving a giftReceiving a giftSitting in a chairA
35Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of the… Alveoli 10Air is forced into the lungs by thecontraction of the…AlveoliBronchiolesDiaphragmHeartC