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PURPOSE OF RESPIRATION If you were to design an efficient breathing system, what would the requirements be?

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Presentation on theme: "PURPOSE OF RESPIRATION If you were to design an efficient breathing system, what would the requirements be?"— Presentation transcript:

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3 PURPOSE OF RESPIRATION If you were to design an efficient breathing system, what would the requirements be?

4 'I lived in an iron lung for seven years' By John Prestwich for CNN Monday, November 14, 2005 Posted: 1600 GMT (0000 HKT) CNN) -- John Prestwich was diagnosed with polio at the age of 17 in 1955, which made him paralyzed from the chin down. He has spent 50 years on an artificial ventilator, including seven in an iron lung. Iron lungs work on negative pressure. In other words the iron lung is sealed and attached to bellows, which lower the air pressure inside the iron lung to create a negative pressure

5 PURPOSE OF RESPIRATION If you were to design an efficient breathing system, what would the requirements be?

6 What would a machine need to do? Collect new air Get rid of old air Hold/store air Connect to body via transportation system (circulatory system) FUNCTION:  move oxygen from the outside environment into the body  remove carbon dioxide from the body

7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1.External respiration 2.Internal respiration

8 RESPIRATION External= breathing Internal Between environment and lungs Between blood and cell

9 EXTERNAL RESPIRATION AKA- BREATHING

10 RESPIRATORY TRACT Bronchi

11 TRACHEA TUBULAR PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR Bronchioles

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13 DIAPHRAGM Dome-shaped muscle attached to rib cage that contracts& flattens out during breathing

14 Observe what happens to the diaphragm.

15 Breathing – The Lungs Breathing animation video Pay attention to the role of the ribcage and the diaphragm and how these creates a pressure difference so breathing can take place. "nature hates a vacuum"

16 BREATHING

17 Breathing in - inhaling Rib cage –expands Diaphragm –moves downward Pressure –reduces inside lung Result – air is drawn into the lungs

18 Breathing out - exhaling Rib cage –contracts Diaphragm –moves upward / inward Pressure –increases inside lung Result – air is pushed out of the lung

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20 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1.External respiration 2.Internal respiration

21 RESPIRATION External Internal Between environment and lungs -inhale -exhale Between blood and cell

22 RESPIRATORY TRACT Bronchi

23 RESPIRATORY TRACT Bronchi Epiglottis

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25 TRACHEA TUBULAR PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR Bronchioles

26 Alveoli CO 2 and O 2 exchanged at the same time pulmonary artery (deoxygenated blood) Pulmonary vein (oxygenated blood) bronchioles alveolus

27 bronchioles

28 Respiration Video

29 TRACHEA TUBULAR PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR Bronchioles

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31 Air Composition Inhaled air  Nitrogen N 2 – 79%  Oxygen O 2 – 20%  CO 2 – 0.04%  Others % Exhaled air  Nitrogen N 2 – 79%  Oxygen O 2 – 16%  CO 2 – 4%  Others - 1%

32 INTERNAL RESPIRATION AKA CELLULAR RESPIRATION Between blood and cell

33 Breathing – The Alveoli Diffusion –The movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

34 DIFFUSION

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36 Gaseous exchange requires:

37 HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Large surfacemillions of alveoli Thin Epithelium2-cell layer Ventilationmaintains diffusion gradient Capillary networkconcentration gradient favors diffusion

38 Gaseous Exchange Alveoli – Capillary Interface

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40 Breathing – The Alveoli O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 CO 2 Breathing in Breathing out high concentration of oxygen high concentration of carbon dioxide low concentration of oxygen low concentration of carbon dioxide Diffusion To the heart From the heart

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42 Thin membrane between air and blood Moist surface area Permeable membrane between air and blood Large surface area Association with rich blood supply

43 Respiration Food + Oxygen  CO 2 + water + ENERGY Glucose + O 2  CO 2 + water + ENERGY C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + ENERGY C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ENERGY

44 Cell Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy

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46 Content Be able to label the mains parts of the respiratory system. Know the gases in the air. Know the percentages of the gases in inhaled air. Know the percentages of the gases in exhaled air. Know where gas exchange takes place Understand the term diffusion Understand the role of diffusion in the exchange of gases in the lungs Explain how the alveoli have developed to allow for the exchange of gases. Understand the structures involved in the breathing process. Understand the role of pressure in the breathing process. Describe how the composition of the blood changes as it passes through the lungs Know the structures affected, causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of various breathing disorders. Study Guide: Grade 8 Science – Breathing and Respiration Note: Electronic copy saved in Student Resources Folder

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