Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology THEA 2051 A human being is only breath and shadow. Sophocles."— Presentation transcript:
Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology THEA 2051 A human being is only breath and shadow. Sophocles
BREATH Animals need three things to survive; food, water and air. Food and water can be stored but air cannot.
Function of Respiration Primary function of breath is life O2 essential requirement for normal cell metabolism CO2 major waste product Transport O2 to cells and transport CO2 to lungs for excretion Air is expelled through MUSCLES
Inspiration Air moves in and out of the lungs in response to pressure. When Alveolar pressure is negative it results in air flow into the lungs Alveolar pressure becomes equal with atmospheric pressure thorax stops expanding and airflow stops Gas flows from area of higher pressure (concentration) to one of lower pressure concentration)
Expiration Chest wall relaxes and the thorax and lungs space decreases When Alveoli pressure is positive to atmospheric pressure the result is air flow out of the lungs Pressure becomes equal and gas movement ceases
Muscles of Inspiration contract creating a negative pressure drawing air in. To equalize pressure in the lung’s two forces, (active which is muscular and passive which consists of gravity and elastic recoil) empty them.
Elastic recoil is an object’s ability, after its shape is changed through forces to reclaim its original shape once those forces are removed. Elastic recoil works on any tissue including muscles, bones and organs. So as the muscles of inspiration relax the body springs back, helping to empty the lungs. Elastic Recoil
Respiratory Volumes Vital Capacity is the maximum usable air. Includes: –INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME –TIDAL VOLUME –EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME
Perkins and Kent, Textbook of Functional Anatomy of Speech, Language and Hearing (4 th Ed), Williams and Wilkins, 1993
Cont’d Residual volume Residual volume- even after forced expiration a residual amount of air is present in the alveoli (2 L) Tidal volume Tidal volume- volume of gas inhaled or exhaled during a normal breath (500- 600ml) Inspiratory reserve volume Inspiratory reserve volume- amount of gas that can be forcefully expired after inspiration of normal tidal volume (2 L) Expiratory reserve volume Expiratory reserve volume – expiration (2 L) TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY is 7 L
For Speech Tidal Volume In speech we want to increase Tidal Volume. We want to increase the 500ml amount to use it more effectively and efficiently. Breath for life Thorax expands slightly Breath for speech Thorax expands significantly
Upper Airway Anatomy Trachea- 15-20 “C” shaped cartilages, anterior to esophagus Bronchial tree- primary bronchi divide into R and L; divide into secondary bronchi as they enter the lungs; form bronchioles extend into each lobe Alveoli- primarily where gas exchange takes place, coated with surfactant which keeps them from collapsing
Movement of Breath The THORAX increases in THREE WAYS VERICAL – Downward motion-Bicycle Pump TRANSVERSE- Bucket handle motion ANTEROPOSTERIOR – Water-Pump handle motion
VERTICAL MOVEMENT Vertical expansion is achieved by lowering of the Diaphragm.
VERTICAL MOVEMENT The pelvic diaphragm and the thoracic diaphragm move down when inspiring.
TRANSVERSE Transverse (Lateral) increase happens at the rib cage. This movement is sometimes referred to as BUCKET HANDLE. The movement comes from the lower portion due to CARTLIDGE as well as the shape of the ribs. Lower ribs are shaped in direction of movement. Upper ribs are more horizontal. It is the outward movement which assists the diaphragm as well as providing more space for the lungs
TRANSVERSE Spine Anterior-posterior axis Latarel Axis A torqued rib
ANTERPOSTERIOR This movement is less efficient (5-10%) Increases the size of the cavity from the upper chest, from sternum. It is called PUMP HANDLE MOTION. It is less flexible not as much breath can be taken. The expansion will not allow the intake of much breath.
Brain (medulla and higher centers) sends impulse to inspire. Diaphragm contracts down, increasing the vertical dimension of the thorax. Intercostals and interchondral muscles contract expanding lateral and anterior- posterior dimensions of the thorax. Negative air pressure is created in the lungs Pressure is equalized in the lungs. Air is drawn into the lungs. Gas is expelled from the lungs. Diaphragm and rib- cage relax decreasing the vertical, lateral and anterior-posterior dimensions of the thorax. Contraction of the diaphragm, intercostals and interchondral muscles stop and elastic recoil brings them to released position. Abdominal and intercostals muscles contract decreasing thoracic volume. Positive air pressure is created in the lungs. INSPIRATION EXPIRATION
Types of Breathing Habit can create an emotional response – such as shallow chest breathing and anxiety Combination of VERTICAL and LATERAL is most efficient; there is greater muscular control possible VERTICAL move of the diaphragm down can sometimes be confused with stomach breathing NOT EVERYBODYS MIND OR BODY WILL CONNECT IN THE SAME WAY.
Lungs Smooth muscle in bronchioles, attached to heart by pulmonary artery and veins Bases rest on diaphragm Apex extends about 2.5 cm above clavicles Left- two lobes Right- three lobes Separated and covered by pleural cavity Pleural Cavity- visceral and parietal, pleural space
Breath This whole process feeds and cleans the body. Breath is part of the organism and like any another part its individual parts are interrelated and any malfunction of one affects the whole. Inspiration determines expiration. Posture allows or inhibits breath. Both posture and respiration influence phonation and speech.
What is breath? Merriam-Webster’s first definition of breath is a kind of “emanation”. Travelling down the lexicological path, emanation is defined as; 1 a: the action of emanating: a flowing forth “experiencing our consciousness as an emanation of the creative impulse that rules the world” Albert Schweitzer; the emanation of light from a candle b : the origination of the world conceived in Neoplatonism not as a creation out of nothing but as a series of hierarchically descending radiations from the Godhead to nous and other intermediate stages and ultimately to matter c : the procession (as of Jesus Christ or the Holy Spirit) directly from the Godhead distinguished from creation as used of mortal beings
Letting Go. Breath itself is nominal. It is a concept. It is about shaping the shapeless, snatching order from chaos. Creation. Breath is the intellectual emanation that creates the eye of the storm. How can an emanation support the physical action of speaking? Through allowance, ease and trust.