3 Sternum (RAO)Contrast & density to see jugular notch, manubrium, sternal body, & xiphoid process (60-70 kVp)This view rotates the sternum from behind the T-spine30 inch SID/ breathing technique/3 to 4 second exposure timeRotation degrees, Sternum should be within heart shadowMidsternum in center of field
4 Sternum (lateral) 70 to 75 kVp manubrium, sternal body & xiphoid process seen in profile with no superimposition of the anterior ribs over the sternumMidsternum in center of fieldPosition getting patient in full inspiration
7 Ribs ( AP & PA) 65 to 70 kVp (upper) 75 to 80 kVp (lower) When fractures occur, other pathology is closely looked for. Pneumothorax, emphysema, rupture of trachea, bronchus, or aortaFor lower pathology, kidney, liver, spleen or diaphragm damageFor anterior rib pain, do PA projection to place them closer to film/ and vice versa
8 AP or PA of Ribs above diaphragm For AP & PA remove scapula from lung fieldSee 9 posterior ribs above diaphragm7th posterior rib in center of field (halfway between jugular notch & xiphoid process)Full inspiration
10 AP & PA of Ribs below diaphragm 9th – 12th posterior ribs seen below diaphragmUse higher kVp to penetrate abdominal tissue9th or 10th posterior rib in center of field halfway between sternum and xiphoid processFor hypersthenic patient with short, wide thorax, place lower border of cassette 2 inches above the crest, then center central ray to film
17 Ribs (anterior & posterior obliques) 65 to 70 kVp upper/ 75 to 80 kVp lowerAxillary rib detail is best in posterior oblique / axillary ribs closest to film and better view of sternumThorax rotated 45 degrees/ the inferior sternum is positioned halfway between the vertebral column and anterior ribs
18 Posterior & Anterior oblique Ribs above & below diaphragm 9 axillary ribs seen/ full inspiration?7th axillary rib in center of fieldBelow: 9th – 12th axillary ribs seen expiration9th or 10th axillary rib in center of field
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