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1. Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback mechanisms 2. Give and example of each type of mechanism and explain how each works for that example.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback mechanisms 2. Give and example of each type of mechanism and explain how each works for that example."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1. Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback mechanisms 2. Give and example of each type of mechanism and explain how each works for that example

3 When navigating the body, directional terms help determine the exact location of a structure

4  All directional terms are based on the body being in the “anatomical position” Facing forward Palms outward

5  Superior/inferior (cranial/caudal)  Anterior/posterior (ventral/dorsal)  Medial/lateral  Proximal/distal (usually used with reference to the limbs)  Superficial/deep

6 1. The knees are __________ to the thighs 2. Your eyebrows are _________ to your nose 3. Your diaphragm is __________ to your stomach 4. Your elbows are ____________ to the wrists

7  Imaginary lines used to section the body and its organs  These lines run longitudinally, horizontally, and on an angle

8  median/sagittal cuts body in half if not median, can still be sagittal  frontal (coronal) cuts the body into front and back halves  Transverse Cut in half at the stomach  Oblique Angular cut

9 1. A mad slasher has a machete and slices you into two parts – front and back – what type of cut was it. 2. You are cutting vegetables cut your finger diagonally – what type of cut was it? 3. Describe a sagittal cut

10 1. Describe the anatomical position 2. What word can be used instead of cranial? 3. What word would you use to describe your skin to your muscles? What about your muscles to your skin? 4. What is the another word for ventral?

11 a b c d e Front

12  Spaces within the body that contain the internal organs  There are 7 cavities – two are closed and 5 are open

13 1. The dorsal cavity - Located in the posterior region of the body - Contains two smaller cavities  Cranial cavity – contains the brain  Vertebral cavity – contains the spinal cord

14 2. The ventral cavity - Located in the anterior region of the trunk - Contains two smaller cavities separated by the diaphragm  Thoracic cavity – separated into two compartments by the medisternum which contains the aorta, esophagus, trachea, thymus  Pleural cavities – the spaces surrounding each lung  Pericardial cavity – the space in which the heart is located  Abdominopelvic cavity - Large abdominal cavity – the space that contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidney, and most of the large and small intestine - The pelvic cavity – the space that contains the terminal part of the large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

15  In what cavity would you find the spinal cord?  What separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?

16 1. Oral cavity – teeth and tongue 2. Nasal cavity – nose and sinuses 3. Orbital cavities – eyes 4. Middle ear cavities 5. Synovial cavities – houses joints

17  Designated for specific body areas that have a special nerve or vascular supply or those that perform a special function  The most widely used terms are those that designate regions in the abdomen

18 1. Umbilical region 2. Epigastric region 3. Hypogastric region 4. Right/left iliac regions (a.k.a. inguinal) 5. Right/left lumbar regions 6. Right/left hypochondriac regions

19 1. Umbilical region - Small intestine 2. Epigastric region - liver, diaphragm, transverse colon of large intestine, and stomach 3. Hypogastric region - appendix, bladder, small intestine

20 4. Right iliac region - Cecum and ascending colon of the large intestine 5. Right lumbar region - Ascending colon 6. Right hypochondriac region - Gall bladder, liver, diaphragm, and transverse colon

21 7. Left iliac region - Initial part of the sigmoid colon 8. Left lumbar region - Descending colon 9. Left hypochondriac region - stomach, diaphragm, transverse colon, start of the descending colon

22 There are four major quadrants: 1. Right upper quadrant (RUQ) 2. Left upper quadrant (LUQ) 3. Right lower quadrant (RLQ) 4. Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

23  Label each section of the abdonminpelvic area A IH J G C F DB

24 1. In what region(s) would I find my transverse colon? 2. Suzy goes to the hospital with appendicitis. What part of her abdomen will they have to cut? 3. Billy the bully gets punched in the umbilical section of his abdomen. What organ(s) are at risk for injury?

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26 1. Of the 9 abdominopelvic regions, what 4 would be found or partially found in the left upper quadrant? 2. The spinal cord is ____________ to the esophagus 3. The larynx is _____________ to the trachea 4. Tommy is cutting down a tree with a chain saw – it slips and cuts off his arm. What type of cut is this?

27  Give the anatomical name for the following areas: 1. The cheek 2. The chest 3. The armpit 4. The kneecap 5. The thigh 6. The lower back


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