Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer… Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback mechanisms Give and example of each type of mechanism and explain how each works for that."— Presentation transcript:
1 Bell Ringer…Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback mechanismsGive and example of each type of mechanism and explain how each works for that example
2 Directional TermsWhen navigating the body, directional terms help determine the exact location of a structure
3 Anatomical Position…All directional terms are based on the body being in the “anatomical position”Facing forwardPalms outward
4 In general, directional terms can be grouped in pairs of opposites Superior/inferior (cranial/caudal)Anterior/posterior (ventral/dorsal)Medial/lateralProximal/distal (usually used with reference to the limbs)Superficial/deep
5 Try it… The knees are __________ to the thighs Your eyebrows are _________ to your noseYour diaphragm is __________ to your stomachYour elbows are ____________ to the wrists
6 Reference PlanesImaginary lines used to section the body and its organsThese lines run longitudinally, horizontally, and on an angle
7 The 4 major body reference planes are: median/sagittalcuts body in halfif not median, can still be sagittalfrontal (coronal)cuts the body into front and back halvesTransverseCut in half at the stomachObliqueAngular cut
8 Try It…A mad slasher has a machete and slices you into two parts – front and back – what type of cut was it.You are cutting vegetables cut your finger diagonally – what type of cut was it?Describe a sagittal cut
9 Bell Ringer… Describe the anatomical position What word can be used instead of cranial?What word would you use to describe your skin to your muscles? What about your muscles to your skin?What is the another word for ventral?
11 Body cavities Spaces within the body that contain the internal organs There are 7 cavities – two are closed and 5 are open
12 The 2 major closed cavities The dorsal cavityLocated in the posterior region of the bodyContains two smaller cavitiesCranial cavity – contains the brainVertebral cavity – contains the spinal cord
13 Located in the anterior region of the trunk 2. The ventral cavityLocated in the anterior region of the trunkContains two smaller cavities separated by the diaphragmThoracic cavity – separated into two compartments by the medisternum which contains the aorta, esophagus, trachea, thymusPleural cavities – the spaces surrounding each lungPericardial cavity – the space in which the heart is locatedAbdominopelvic cavityLarge abdominal cavity – the space that contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidney, and most of the large and small intestineThe pelvic cavity – the space that contains the terminal part of the large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
14 Bell Ringer… In what cavity would you find the spinal cord? What separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
15 The 5 open cavities Oral cavity – teeth and tongue Nasal cavity – nose and sinusesOrbital cavities – eyesMiddle ear cavitiesSynovial cavities – houses joints
16 Body RegionsDesignated for specific body areas that have a special nerve or vascular supply or those that perform a special functionThe most widely used terms are those that designate regions in the abdomen
17 The 6 Abdomen Regions Umbilical region Epigastric region Hypogastric regionRight/left iliac regions (a.k.a. inguinal)Right/left lumbar regionsRight/left hypochondriac regions
18 Organs found in 9 abdomen regions Umbilical regionSmall intestine2. Epigastric regionliver, diaphragm, transverse colon of large intestine, and stomach3. Hypogastric region- appendix, bladder, small intestine
19 Right iliac regionCecum and ascending colon of the large intestineRight lumbar regionAscending colonRight hypochondriac regionGall bladder, liver, diaphragm, and transverse colon
20 Left iliac regionInitial part of the sigmoid colon8. Left lumbar regionDescending colonLeft hypochondriac region- stomach, diaphragm, transverse colon, start of the descending colon
21 Another scheme commonly used by medical personnel is quadrants There are four major quadrants:Right upper quadrant (RUQ)Left upper quadrant (LUQ)Right lower quadrant (RLQ)Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
22 Bell Ringer… Label each section of the abdonminpelvic area B D A G C F JHI
23 Bell Ringer II In what region(s) would I find my transverse colon? Suzy goes to the hospital with appendicitis. What part of her abdomen will they have to cut?Billy the bully gets punched in the umbilical section of his abdomen. What organ(s) are at risk for injury?
25 Review…Of the 9 abdominopelvic regions, what 4 would be found or partially found in the left upper quadrant?The spinal cord is ____________ to the esophagusThe larynx is _____________ to the tracheaTommy is cutting down a tree with a chain saw – it slips and cuts off his arm. What type of cut is this?
26 Bell Ringer II Give the anatomical name for the following areas: The cheekThe chestThe armpitThe kneecapThe thighThe lower back