Presentation on theme: "Robert Burns (1759-96) ‘Scots Wha Hae’ 1. Scots, wha hae wi’ Wallace bled,4. Wha for Scotland’s King and law Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,Freedom’s."— Presentation transcript:
Robert Burns (1759-96) ‘Scots Wha Hae’ 1. Scots, wha hae wi’ Wallace bled,4. Wha for Scotland’s King and law Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,Freedom’s sword will strongly draw Welcome to your gory bed,Freeman stand, or freeman fa’? Or to victorie!Let him follow me! 2. Now’s the day, and now’s the hour;5. By opposition’s woes and pains! See the front o’ battle lour!By your sons in servile chains! See approach proud Edward’s power -We will drain our dearest veins, Chains and slaverie!But they shall be free! 3. Wha will be a traitor knave?6. Lay the proud usurpers low! Wha can fill a coward’s grave? Tyrants fall in every foe! Wha sae base as be a slave?Liberty’s fall in every foe! Let him turn and flee!Let us do or die!
‘Flower of Scotland’ - Roy Williamson (1936-90) 1. O flower of Scotland2. The hills are bare now When will we seeAnd autumn leaves lie Your like again,Thick and still That fought and died forO’er land that is lost now Your wee bit hill and glenWhich those so dearly held And stood against himChorus Proud Edward’s army And sent him homeward Tae think again 3. Those days are passed now And in the past They must remain But we can still rise now And be the nation again Chorus
John Barbour - The Bruce Written c. 1372-75 by Archdeacon of Aberdeen. 13, 864 lines of vernacular verse 408 lines on 1286-1304 6,409 lines on 1305-1314 2,000 lines on Bannockburn 4,807 lines on 1315-32
John Barbour - The Bruce, 1372-5 1. Chivalric entertainment and romance. 2. Late 14th century politics - dominated by Stewarts and Douglases. 3. Anti-Englishness - 1371 alliance with France. 4. Doubts about Stewart succession - so further black propaganda about Balliol, Soules etc. 5. Plea for political unity between crown and magnates in 1370s after turbulent reign of David II.
The Scottish chronicle tradition… John of Fordun, 1380s - Chronica Gentis Scotorum : history of nation since origins to 1370s to stress Scottish independence …but also affected by turbulent politics of late 14th century Andrew Wyntoun, c. 1420 - Original Chronicle - uses Barbour in verse history of nation since origins …but affected by weak reign of Robert III and magnate rivalries? Walter Bower, Abbot of Inchcolm,c. 1440s - Scotichronicon - continuing Fordun, uses Wyntoun and Barbour, but also adds much:- more on Wallace and Murray, Great Cause, Wallace persuading Bruce to change sides 1298. Also uses government papers - e.g. Baldred Bisset’s work, the Declaration of Arbroath… but affected by violent politics of James I’s reign (1406-37)
Blind Hary - The Wallace Really an analogy directed against unpopular pro-English policies and kingship of James III… Hary working for men who backed James III’s brother, Albany. Hary paid for work at court by James IV regime which had killed James III in battle at Sauchieburn, 1488 (where James III carried the sword of Bruce!)...
Blind Hary - The Wallace written 1476-8 Claimed to use a life of Wallace, written by John Blair, Wallace’s confessor, for William Sinclair, bishop of Dunkeld (d. 1337). 11,000 lines of vernacular verse
Blind Hary - The Wallace Fantastical hagiography of Wallace and rabid anti-Englishness - No mention of Andrew Murray - Stirling Wallace’s victory alone - Fights in France v. English - Liaison with Edward I‘s Queen - Wins Falkirk! - Persuades Bruce to change sides
Blind Hary’s The Wallace - first printed c. 1509 by Edinburgh royal press, Chapman and Myllar - 23 editions by 1707.
Sir William Wallace by George Jamesone - part of cycle of 109 portraits of Scottish rulers for triumphal arch for visit of Charles I to Scotland, 1633 But… Wallace a popular figure in Covenanters’ cause v. Charles I and then Cromwell Wars played down under James VI
1722 Hamilton of Gilbertfield’s English version - 23 editions by 1859
1814 - first public Wallace monument erected by Earl of Buchan (leading antiquary and founder of National portrait Gallery) at Dryburgh… However, unionist Scots like Sir Walter Scott looked to Wallace and Bruce as men who had ensured Scotland remained independent until could be united with England as ‘North Britain’ as equal partners…
Wallace and wars in popular culture - town/village plays, guising at New Year; ballad traditions - Border Ballads collected by Robert Burns and Walter Scott.
‘Wallace’ place- names… began to appear 15th/16th centuries… more added as literate populace began to read The Wallace? Wallace.. Oaks Tree Wells Seats Stones etc…..
19th C Electoral Reform and Home Rule Movements… 1861-9 appeal to build National Wallace Monument struggles despite support of European electoral reformers like Garibaldi, Mazzini, Kossuth, Blanc etc.
First critical histories? 19th C :- Hume Brown - began to question value of Hary as source E.W, Barron, The Scottish War of Independence (1934) - Andrew Murray and north-eastern revolt - Bruce’s vacillation G.W.S. Barrow, Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland (1965) …but no in-depth study of Bruces in Ireland until 1980s… - Bruce’s reign 1314-29 still awaits in-depth study.
1951 Stone of Destiny stolen from Westminster by Nationalists - returned at Arbroath Abbey.
1929 - pair of Wallace and Bruce statues at Edinburgh gate-house.
1961 (century after Wallace monument fund farce) fund for Bruce statue at Bannockburn struggles to raise cash for English sculptor, Pilkington-Jackson Yet after 1995 Stirling tourism presented as ‘Braveheart Country’
St Andrews day, Nov. 1996 - return of Stone of Destiny - not to Scone but Edinburgh castle...
New National Museum of Scotland, 1999 Public outcry at absence of a Wallace artefact…
New National Museum of Scotland, 1999 20th century Room - objects selected by famous and ordinary Scots Alex Salmond (leader SNP) - Braveheart poster Sean Connery (SNP supporter) - milk bottle and Declaration of Arbroath