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Presentation on theme: "MUSIC WORKS NORTHWEST MUSIC THERAPY PROGRAM PATTI CATALANO, MM, MT-BC, Neurologic Music Therapy Fellow KIRSTEN HUTCHISON, MT-BC Neurologic Music Therapist."— Presentation transcript:

1 MUSIC WORKS NORTHWEST MUSIC THERAPY PROGRAM PATTI CATALANO, MM, MT-BC, Neurologic Music Therapy Fellow KIRSTEN HUTCHISON, MT-BC Neurologic Music Therapist Now Playing Good Morning My Love by Vered Benhorin If You’re Happy and You Know it Sing a Song

2 Side By Side Well, we’re therapists, teachers and parents, Families, administrators, too. And we’re traveling along Singing our song Side by side. We’ve spent 2 or 3 days learning, Networking, browsing, brains burning, It’s time to have fun See what music and language have done Side by side. Melody, prosody, rhythm… Pragmatics, syntactics, too. Morphology, phonology, timbre, They’ll help our children read Winnie the Pooh Yes, music and language are cousins Important for communicating dozens And they travel along Singing our song, Side by side Yes, we’re traveling along Come join in our song, Side……..side.

3 “Music in my Hands” Photo Copyright Some Rights Reserved by Howard County Library

4 Learning Objectives 1.Participants will understand the commonality between music and oral language and how music supports learning of oral language for the preschool child. 2.Participants will gain hands-on experience with age- appropriate materials and songs that will support the preschooler’s growth in oral language. 3.Participants will practice music making in a variety of ways to increase their comfort zone in working musically with their preschoolers. 4.Participants will learn research resources they can use with families and administrators to explain the importance of using music to support the development of oral language in preschoolers.

5 Musical Experiment

6 Where Music is Processed

7 Music’s Partnership with Brain “The brain that engages in music is changed by engaging in music.” Dr. Michael Thaut, PhD., Neurologic Music Therapist Entrainment Plasticity Memory

8 Why Bother Infusing Music? “Motherese” – language with babies is engaging and creates important connections between infants & adults – it has “sing-song” qualities Decoding speech in noisy settings – ability is improved with musical training. Classrooms ARE often noisy settings. Sensory issues make it difficult to learn in a classroom. Music creates brain arousal leading to attention and readiness to learn. Developmentally music is a natural way to connect and learn.

9 Music Infusion Continued Music shares neural networks with other cognitive processes and engages the whole brain – makes connections for children needing new neural connections. Music can be modified to fit the needs of the children in your classroom, your session, or your home.

10 Successful Strategies – Young Children Individualized Developmental Predictable Opportunity for Practice Opportunity for Generalization Schwartz, E. 2012 All of these are a natural part of a musical experience

11 WHAT DO YOU THINK? Pairing Music with Speech

12 Three Languages LiteracyNumeracyArtistry

13 A. Communicate Information B. Express Relations C. Have a set of rules Language accomplishes 3 things:

14 Non-musical Elements Musical Elements Prosody and Timbre Fluency and Rate Grammar Articulation/ Pronunciation Auditory Processing Verbal Memory Reciprocal Interaction Melody and Timbre Rhythm and Tempo Rules/ Form Articulation/Aural Training Auditory Processing Pneumonic Devices Solos and Ensembles Hand in Hand Development: Oral Language Adapted from Christine Barton (2011) and Rebecca Wellman (2011)

15 Prosody, Timbre and Melody Early in life, musical and linguistic processes have similar developmental underpinnings (Saffron, 2003) (Gill & Purves, 2009) (Bowling, Gill, Choi, Prinz, & Purves, 2010) MIT and MMIT, VIT “Na na na na na!” Lullabies: Minor descending 3rds, short ranges, repetitive melodic patterns  Hey Diddle Diddle  Twinkle Twinkle  Come My Little Darling  Down in the Valley  Tender Shepher

16 Tender Shepherd Will you help me Count your sheep One in the garden Two in the meadow Three in the nursery Fast asleep

17 Fluency, Rate, Rhythm, and Tempo Children with Childhood apraxia of speech show timing accuracy problems in speech and music- related tasks (Peter & Stoel-Gammon, 2005 & 2008) Musical training may be therapeutic for individuals with SLI because of the close relationship between speech and Music RSC I’ve been working on the railroad My name is _________. What’s your name? Who stole the cookie from the cookie jar Mama Paquita

18 Mama Paquita, buy your baby a papaya A ripe papaya And a Banana A ripe banana that you’re baby will enjoy Mama mama mama Paquita Mama Paquita Mama Paquita says, “I haven’t any money To buy papaya Or ripe banana Well go to carnival and dance the night away.” Ole!

19 Syntax: Grammar and Musical Rules Children with musical training showed enhanced abilities in language rule formation and word memory (Marin, 2009) Musical Form Strophic, Sonata, Solo and Tutti, Repeated phrases Clear forms and phrases with beginnings and ends  Moonlight Sonata  Mary Had a Little Lamb  Puff the Magic Dragon

20 Puff the Magic Dragon (B) Puff the magic dragon Lived by the sea And frolicked in the autumn mist In a land called Honalee Puff the magic dragon Lived by the sea And frolicked in the autumn mist In a land called Honalee (A) Little Jackie Paper Loved that rascal Puff And brought him strings and ceiling wax And other fancy stuff (B) Oh Puff the magic dragon Lived by the sea Puff the magic dragon Lived by the sea And frolicked in the autumn mist In a land called Honalee Puff the magic dragon Lived by the sea And frolicked in the autumn mist In a land called Honalee

21 Articulation and Pronunciation Musical aptitude was correlated with 2 nd language pronunciation skills in school aged children (Milovanov, Huotilainen, Vilamaki, Esquef, Tervaniemi, 2007) Sarah Roseberry Lytle: Language Specialists TS, OMREX Sarasponda Merzi Dotes Kaeru No Uta Wa Frere Jacques

22 Kaero No Uta Wa Ka e ru no u ta wa Ki ko e te ku ru yo Kwa Kwa Kero Kero Kwa Kwa Kwa

23 Verbal Intelligence Children skillful at hand-clapping songs were more efficient students and were advantaged in verbal memory and handwriting (Brodsky & Sulkin, 2010) Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function in pre-schoolers (Moreno, Bialystok, Barac, Schellenberg, Cepeda, Chau, 2011) Miss Mary Mack ABC’s 50 nifty United States Pneumonic Devices

24 Miss Mary Mack Miss Mary Mack Mack Mack All dressed in black, black, black With silver buttons, buttons, buttons All down her back, back, back. She asked her mother, mother, mother For 50 cents, cents, cents To see the elephants, elephants, elephants Jump over the fence, fence, fence. They jumped so high, high, high They reached the sky, sky, sky And they didn't come back, back, back 'Til the 4th of July, ly, ly!

25 Pragmatics and Cultural Competence After 6 months of active music making classes, 12 month old infants showed an increase of culture- specific musical acquisition (Gerry, Undrau, and Trainor, 2012) Along with language development, children are learning cultural norms for music (Barrett, 2010)  Akatombo  I’ve been Working on the Railroad  Clementine  Meir hut der hat drei ecken  Cockoo

26 Clementine In a cavern, In a canyon, Excavating for a mine, Dwelt a miner forty-niner, And his daughter Clementine. Chorus: Oh my darling, Oh my darling Clementine, You are lost and gone forever, Dreadful sorry Clementine. Repeat chorus Light she was and like a fairy, And her shoes were number nine; Herring boxes, without topses, Sandals were for Clementine. Repeat chorus Drove she ducklings to the water, Every morning just at nine; Hit her foot against a splinter, Fell into the foaming brine. Repeat chorus Ruby lips above the water, Blowing bubbles, soft and fine; But Alas! I was no swimmer, So I lost my Clementine. Repeat chorus When the miner forty-niner, Soon began to peak and pine, Thought he oughter "jine" his daughter, Now he's with his clementine. Repeat chorus In a corner of the churchyard, Where the myrtle boughs entwine, Grow the roses in their poses, Fertilized by Clementine. Repeat chorus In my dreams she still doth haunt me, Robed in garments soaked in brine. Though in life I used to hug her, Now she's dead, I'll draw the line. Repeat chorus How I missed her, how I missed her How I missed my Clementine. So I kissed her little sister, And forgot my Clementine. Repeat chorus Now you Boy Scouts, there's a moral To this little tale of mine. Artificial respiration, Would have saved my Clementine. Repeat chorus

27 Auditory Processing Musical Training improves auditory processing and sensitivity in children 7-12 (Meyer, Elmer, Ringli, Oechslin, Baumann, Jancke, 2011) Children that engage in musical training have significant advantages processing speech in nose (Strait et al., 2012, 2013) Music interventions strengthen auditory perceptions skills in children with dyslexia (Forgeard, Schlaug, Norton, Rosam & Iyengar, 2008) Row, Row, Row your boat I love the flowers Frere Jacques

28 I love the Mountains I love the mountains I love the rolling hills I love the flowers I love the daffodils I love the fireside When all the lights are low Boom-dee-a-da, boom-dee-a-da, boom-dee-a-da, boom-dee-a-da

29 Reciprocal Interaction Early musical interactions foster development of joint attention (Phillips-Silver & Keller, 2012) After 6 months of active music making classes, 12 month old infants showed an increasing in social and communication development over their peers who participated in passive music experiences (Gerry, Undrau, and Trainor, 2012) Marching in the Band Drummin’ Song Jam Like Me

30 Drummin’ Song Oh we’re drummin’ along to our drummin’ song (Drums!) Keepin’ a beat, it sounds so strong (Steady beat, steady beat) Oh we’re drummin’ along and it feels so free (Drums!) Can you drum like me?


32 How Does Music Support Literacy?  Prosody and Timbre  Fluency and Rate  Articulation/Pronounciation  Verbal Memory  MOTIVATION

33 HTTP://WIKI.KCLS.ORG/INDEX.PHP/CATEGO RY:RHYMES_%26_SONGS How do you use music and literacy together? Playtime with Musical Books

34 It’s a Wrap! Questions?

35 I am a Bright Light

36 References American Music Therapy Association, Abrams, D., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., Kraus, N. 2006. Auditory Brainstem Timing Predicts Cerebral Asymmetry for Speech. The Journal of Nueroscience, 26(43), 11131-11137. Barrett, M. 2010. Young Children’s Song-Making: An Analysis of Patterns of Use and Development. The 11 th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Seattle. Barrett, M. 2011. Musical Narratives: A study of a young child’s identity work in and through music-making. Psychology of Music 39 (4), 403-423. Barton, C. 2011. Music and literacy development in young children with hearing loss: A duet? Imagine 2(1), 53-55. Brodsky, W., Sulkin, I. 2011. Handclapping songs: a spontaneous platform for child development among 5–10 year old children. Early Child Development and Care, 181 (8), 1111-1136. Forgeard, M., Schlaug, G., Norton, A., Rosam, C., Iyengar, U., Winner, E. 2008. The Relation between Music and Phonological Processing in Normal-Reading Children and Children with Dyslexia. Music Perception 25(4), 383-390. Gerry, D., Trainor, L., Unrau, A. 2010. Participation in Active Infant Music Classes Accelerates Acquisition of Scale Structure Knowledge. The 11 th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Seattle. Gerry, D., Unrau, A. Trainor, L., 2012. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development. Developmental Science, 15 (3), 398-407. Hanna-Pladdy, B., MacKay, A. 2011. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging. Neuropsychology, 25(3), 378-386.

37 References, Cont. Harris, D.J. 2011. Shake, rattle and roll – can music be used by parents and practitioners to support communication, language and literacy within a pre-school setting? Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 39(2), 139-151. Honing, H. 2010. Beat Induction as a Fundamental Music Skill. The 11 th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Seattle. Humpal, M., McLaughlin, B. 2006. Best Practices in Music Therapy – Early Childhood and School Age Educational Settings. AMTA Conference, 2006. Kansas City, MO. Jentschke, S., Koelsch, S., Sallat, S., Friederici, A. 2008. Children with Specific Language Impairment Also Show Impairment of Music-syntactic Processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(11), 1940-1951. Kim, H., Kemple, K., 2011. Is music an active developmental tool or simply a supplement? Early childhood preservice teachers’ beliefs about music. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 32(2), 135-147. Koops, L. 2012. ‘Now can I watch my video?’: Exploring musical play through video sharing and social networking in an early childhood music class. Reseach Studies in Music Education 34 (1), 15-28. Linting, M., Groeneveld, M. G., Vermeer, H. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Threshold for noise in daycare: Noise level and noise variability are associated with child wellbeing in home-based childcare. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.03.005 Marin, M. 2009. Effects of Early Musical Training on Musical and Linguistic Syntactic Abilities. The Neurosciences and Music III – Disorders and Plasticity: Ann. N.Y. Academy of Sciences 1169, 187-190. McFerran, K., Baker, F., Patton, G., Sawyer, S. 2006. A retrospective lyrical analysis of songs written by adolescents with anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 14, 397-403. McMullen, E., Saffran, J., 2004. Music and Language: A Developmental Comparison. Music Perception 21(3), 289-311 Meyer, M., Elmer, S., Ringli, M., Oechslin, M. S., Baumann, S., Jancke, L, 2011. Long-term exposure to music enhances the sensitivity of the auditory system in children. European Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 755–765.

38 References, Cont. Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Schellengberg, E., Cepeda, N., Chau, T. 2011. Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychological Sciences, 22 (11), 1425-1433. Milovanov, R., Huotilainen, M., Välimäki, V., Esquef, P., Tervaniemi, M. 2008. Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: Neural and behavioral evidence. Brain Research 1194, 81-89. Pasial, V. 2012. Resilience, music therapy, and human adaptation: nurturing young children and families. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 21(1), 36-56. Parbery-Clark, A., Anderson, S., Hittner, E., & Kraus, N. (2012). Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults. Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience, 4doi:10.3389/fnagi.2012.00030 Patel, A. (2009). Keynote Speech, The American Music Therapy Association National Conference, San Diego, CA. Phillips-Silver, J., Keller, P. 2012. Searching for roots of entrainment and joint action in early musical interactions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6 (26), 1-11. Schlaug, G., Forgeard, M., Zhu, L., Norton, A., Norton, A., Winner, E. 2009. Training-induced Neuroplasticity in Young Children. The Neurosciences and Music III: Disorders and Plasticity: Ann. N.Y. Academy of Sciences 1169, 205-208 Schlaug G., Norton A., Marchina S., Zipse L., Wan C.Y. 2010. From singing to speaking: facilitating recovery from nonfluent aphasia. Future Neurology 5(5) 657-665. Schwartz, E. 2012. From Chaos to Community – Early Childhood Music Groups for Young Children with Autism. AMTA Conference, 2012. Chicago, IL Strait, D., Parbery-Clark, A., Hittner, E., Kraus, N. 2012. Music training during early childhood enhances the neural coding of speech in noise. Brain & Language 123, 191-201.

39 References Cont. Thaut, M. (2005). Rhythm, Music, and the Brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Trainor, L., Shahin, A., Roberts, L. 2003. Effects of Musical Training on the Auditory Cortex in Children. Ann. N.Y. Academy of Sciences, 999, 506-513. Trainor, L., Gerry, D., Whiskin, E., Tonus, K., Cheung, A., Unrau, A., 2010. Active Participation in Infant Music Classes: Perceptual, Cognitive and Social Benefits. The 11 th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Seattle. Trappe, H. 2010. Wirkung von musik auf das herz- und kreislauf-system. Günstig oder schädlich?. Musik-, Tanz- und Kunsttherapie, 21(2), 71-78. doi:10.1026/0933-6885/a000006 Vist, T. 2011. Music experience in early childhood: Potential for emotional knowledge? IJEC, 43, 277-290. doi: 10.1007/s13158-011-0045-7 Wan, C., Schlaug, G. 2010. Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span. The Neuroscientist 16(5), 566–577. Wehrum, S., Degé., F., Ott, U., Walter, B.,Stippekohl, B., Kagerer, S., Schwarzer, G., Vaitl, D., Stark, R. 2012. Can you hear a difference? Neuronal correlates of melodic deviance processing in children. Brain Research, 1402, 80-92. Wellman, R. 2011. Understanding development in early childhood music therapy. Imagine 2(1), 61-63. Wible, B., Nicol, T., Kraus, N. 2005. Correlation between brainstem and cortical auditory processes in normal and language-impaired children. Brain, 128(2), 417-423. Winsler, A., Ducenne, L., Koury, A. 2011. Singing one's way to self-regulation: The role of early music and movement curricula and private speech. Early Education & Development, 22(2), 274-304.

40 Contact Information Music Therapy Program Music Works Northwest Bellevue, Washington Kirsten Hutchison, MT-BC, Certified Neurologic Music Therapist; Patti Catalano, MM, MT-BC, Neurologic Music Therapy Fellow; 425-644-0988 X 158

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