Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

GCSE Music Listening Exam Music Department This file contains: Links to useful revision websites Revision notes on Area of Study 2 (Shared Music) Revision.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "GCSE Music Listening Exam Music Department This file contains: Links to useful revision websites Revision notes on Area of Study 2 (Shared Music) Revision."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Music Listening Exam Music Department This file contains: Links to useful revision websites Revision notes on Area of Study 2 (Shared Music) Revision notes on Area of Study 3 (Dance Music) Note: Clicking on the pictures links to relevant clips

2 Useful Websites BBC Bitesize: usic/ usic/ Exam board website: music-j535-from-2012/

3 Ensembles

4 Indian Classical Music

5 How do the players know what to play? Master-student tradition (no notation) The players agree on the tala and raga to use at the start and then improvise around it Date & Place of Origin 3000 years Venue / occasion Religious ceremonies Metre, rhythm & tempo Based on cycle of beats called the tala The table player improvises around the tala Melody Based on the set of notes called a raga Ragas are associated with seasons, moods etc... Everyone agrees on the raga at the start – players improvise using the notes Dialogue / pitch bends / glassandos / scales / ornamentation Structure 3 main sections (Alap – no tabla / Gat - tabla enters/ Jhalla – gets faster) Instrumentation Sitar (melody - raga) Tabla (rhythm – tala) Tanpura (drone) Sarod (glissandos) Bansuri (flute) Ravi Shankar (R.I.P)

6 Indian Instruments The Sitar This is a 7 stringed instrument. One string plays the main melody and the others drone. It improvises. The Tambura This is a 4 stringed instrument. It is a backing instrument The Tabla This is a pair of drums. Musician: Ravi Shankar

7 Gamelan Music

8 How do the players know what to play? Learned by ear Listen carefully to each other Drummer leads the groups indicating tempo changes etc... Date & Place of Origin Indonesia Hundreds of years Venue / occasion Courts, temples. Village squares for puppet shows, dances or religious ceremonies Metre, rhythm & tempo Based on cycle of beats called the tala The table player improvises around the tala Melody & Texture Scales – slendro / pelog All instruments play the same melody which repeats but they play at different speeds = heterophonic texture Structure Cyclic Gongan is the name for a cycle – marked by the gong Instrumentation Gongs Metallophones (saron) Drums (kendang)

9 Baroque & Classical Chamber Music

10 How do the players know what to play? Notation They face slightly towards each other Date Baroque: Classical: Venue / occasion Chamber (small room) Texture / Dynamics / ornamentation Baroque ; Contrapuntal / terraced dynamics / frequent ornaments Classical: melody & accompaniment / gradual dynamic changes / less ornaments Structure Baroque: 4 short movements eg. Dances Classical: 4 movements (f/s/minuet/f) Types of Ensembles Baroque: Solo sonata / trio sonata (Harpsichord) Classical: String quartet / wind quintet Composers: Baroque: Bach Classical: Mozart

11 Voice & Accompaniment

12 Romantic Song

13 How do the players know what to play? Sheet Music They work together Date & Place of Origin Romantic Period ( ), Germany Venue / occasion Small audience or private home Melody & Texture Melody & Accompaniment texture (homophonic) Music reflects the mood or words in the poem German lyrics Dialogue Piano interludes Structure Strophic Through composed Instrumentation Solo voice & piano Ravi Shankar (R.I.P) Schubert

14 Pop Ballad

15 How do the players know what to play? Chord sheets Notation Multi-tracked Date & Place of Origin Modern Venue / occasion Pop Concerts Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 metre Slow tempo Chords change slowly Melody & Texture Expressive vocal line – ornaments, melismas, rubato, large range, long held notes... Structure Verse-chorus Instrumentation Solo voice Piano Guitar Saxophone Backing singers Reverb added Elton John Mariah Carey

16 Ensembles Area of Study 2: Shared Music

17 The Classical Concerto Area of Study 2: Shared Music

18 The Classical Concerto How do the players know what to play? Conductor follows the soloist, orchestra follow the conductor Notation Date & Place of Origin Classical period ( ) Venue / occasion Large concert hall (The Sage / Albert hall) Melody & texture Question & answer phrases Melody and accompaniment (homophonic texture) Gradual changes in dynamics Structure 3 movements (fast- slow-fast) Ends with a cadenza Sometimes a movement is in Rondo form (ABACABA) Instrumentation Solo instrument and orchestra (eg. Flute and orchestra) Mozart

19 Jazz Area of Study 2: Shared Music

20 Jazz How do the players know what to play? Learned by ear From a lead sheet The head (main idea) is pre-composed and memorised Date & Place of Origin America early 20 th century (1900s) Venue / occasion Bar / club Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 metre Swung rhythms Syncopated rhythms Blues scale Melody & Texture Improvised Walking bass Comping Scat singing Structure 12 bar blues Instrumentalists take it in turns to play the solo Instrumentation Frontline: (melody) clarinet, trumpet, saxophone Rhythm section: Piano, bass, drums Duke Ellington Miles Davis

21 Large Scale Vocal Works Area of Study 2: Shared Music

22 The Great Choral Classics How do the players know what to play? Conductor Notation Date & Place of Origin Baroque, Classical, Romantic & Modern periods Venue / occasion Large concert hall (The Sage / Albert hall) or a church Melody & Texture Texture: varied (monophonic / homophonic / polyphonic / unison / octaves / 2 part etc... / dialogue with the orchestra / orchestra doubling the voices Word setting: Syllabic or melismatic Word painting Structure Oratorio: Arias (soloist & orchestra), Recitative (soloist in a spoken style & a few instruments), Chorus (Choir & orchestra) Instrumentation Choir, orchestra and solo singers. Sometimes accompanied by organ. Voices: Soprano, mezzo- soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass Baroque: Handel Classical: Haydn Romantic: Verdi Modern: Orff Area of Study 2: Shared Music

23 African A Cappella Singing How do the players know what to play? Learned by ear (oral tradition) Follow the soloist Date & Place of Origin Africa Venue / occasion Religious ceremonies / weddings Metre, rhythm & tempo Rhythms: Complex / syncopated / follow natural rhythms of speech Melody & Texture Texture: Call & response / unison / harmony = homophonic Melodies: repetitive / phrases die away at the end & descend Structure Very repetitive Instrumentation Voices only Whispering / speaking / talking / Gasping / tongue clicking / sighing / nasal etc... Marching feet / clapping etc... Ladysmith Black Mambazo Area of Study 2: Shared Music

24 Group Dances Area of Study 3: Dance Music

25 American Line Dancing Group Dance Music: Country & Western Area of Study 3: Dance Music

26 American Line Dancing Group Dance Music: Country & Western Steps Choreographed Dancers stand in lines All face the same way Perform the steps in unison together Specific steps: Grapevine Date & Place of Origin 1980s America Venue Clubs and dance halls Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 Stead Tempo Crotchet bass line Melody Repetitive Narrow range 4 bar phrases Slides (glissandos) between notes Structure Verse-chorus Sections of equal length Repetitive Instrumentation Guitar / banjo / Harmonica / Accordion / violin / drums

27 Irish Jig & Reel Group Dance Music: Jig / reel

28 Irish Jig & Reel Group Dance Music: Jig / reel Steps Choreographed Dancers stand in lines All face the same way Upper Body straight & stiff with arms at sides Complex footwork Fast & energetic Kicks & Jumps Date & Place of Origin Ireland Venue Ceilis, festivals, dance competitions Metre, rhythm & Tempo Jig = compound time (6/8) Reel = simple time (2/4) Fast tempo Constant quaver movement Melody Small intervals (lots of 4ths and 5ths) 4-bar phrases Ornamented by the performers Structure Binary form AABB Instrumentation Violin / tin whistle / flute / accordion / Bodhran / Uillean pipes

29 Bhangra Group Dance Music: Bhangra Area of Study 3: Dance Music

30 Bhangra Group Dance Music: Bhangra Steps Groups Often in a circle Energetic steps Acrobatic stunts Date & Place of Origin Traditional Bhangra came from the Punjab region of India Modern Bhangra came from the UK in the 1980s Venue Indian Wedding Night club Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 metre Chaal rhythm played by the dhol drums Fast tempo ( bmp) Melody Small range Notes go down at the end of the phrase Ornamented Punjabi Lyrics Structure Verse-chorus Instrumental Introduction Instrumentation Dhol drum / Sitar & Western pop instruments Music Technology (looping etc...) Punjabi MC

31 Improvised Dances Area of Study 3: Dance Music

32 Disco Area of Study 3: Dance Music

33 Disco Steps Improvised Stay in one spot Hip, hand & shoulder movement Pointing Danced alone The hustle Date & Place of Origin 1970s New York Venue Discotheques, Night clubs Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 Steady Tempo 120bpm Drum pattern: Bass plays every crotchet Snare plays off- beats Hi-hat plays quavers Melody Vocal line is 4 bar phrases Hook Structure Verse-chorus Introduction Middle 8 Fade out Instrumentation Solo singer & backing singers Electric guitar & piano Drum kit/ drum machine Horn section (sax, trumpet & trombone) Synthesised strings

34 Club Dance Area of Study 3: Dance Music

35 Club Dance Steps Improvised Dancers stay in one place Make up their own moves Date & Place of Origin Evolved out of Disco from 1970s onwards Venue Night clubs Metre, rhythm & Tempo 4/4 Fast tempo Regular phrases Melody Sampling Regular phrases Digital Effects Reverb (resonance) Delay (echo) Panning (left/right) Distortion Remix Overlay Multitracking Quantising Looping Instrumentation Drum machine, mixing desk, sampler, synthesiser, sequencer, Decks, Vocoder Musicians Acid house: The Sharmen Techno: Juan Atkins Drum ‘n’ bass: Roni Size Garage: So Soliday Crew Trance: Sasha Ambient: The Orb

36 Paired Dances

37 Waltz Area of Study 3: Dance Music

38 Waltz Steps Paired dance Ballroom hold (close) Circle around the room 3 steps Rising and falling Date & Place of Origin Late 18th century Vienna, Austria Venue Ballroom Metre, rhythm & tempo 3/4 metre Um-cha-cha accompaniment Fast tempo (minim = 70) Rubato Melody 4 bar phrasing Smooth and flowing Structure Often Binary AABB Sometimes have an introduction Instrumentation Orchestra Included in ballets and operas Sometimes for solo piano Johann Strauss

39 Tango Area of Study 3: Dance Music

40 Tango Steps Paired dance Close embrace Upper body remains the same Legs are the interest Fast steps, stalking, legs intertwining Date & Place of Origin Late 19 th century, Argentina Venue Ballroom Metre, rhythm & Tempo 2/4 metre Tempo crotchet = 66 Syncopated, jerky rhythms Staccato notes Melody Regular phrase lengths Chromatic melodies Lyrical Instrumentation Bandoneons (accordians), Violins, piano, double bass

41 Salsa Area of Study 3: Dance Music

42 Salsa Steps Paired dance Hold each other loosely Step forward and backward and to the sides Spins and turns can be added Date & Place of Origin 1960s and 70s New York (based on Son from Cuba) Venue Clubs, festivals, carnivals Metre, rhythm & tempo 4/4 metre Highly syncopated Clave rhythm works as a 2 bar ostinato throughout played on the claves Melody Major key Sybcopated Parallel 3rds and 6ths Spanish Lyrics Call and response Structure Instrumental introduction Verse-chorus Instrumentation Claves,Cowbell. Timbales. Congas, Guiro, trumpets, trombones, piano and voices Celia Cruz

43 Instruments and how they are played Melody & Rhythm Tonality & Harmony (Key & Chords) Texture Dynamics Tempo & Metre Minor Key Unison Crecsendo Slow Arpeggios Dissonance Quiet Legato Countermelody Fast quavers Descending Scales Long notes No clear pulse Tremolando Trill Flutes Polyphonic Major chords

44 Baroque C Musical Characteristics Instruments: Harpsichord – continuo = Harpsichord + cello (no piano), small orchestra (no clarinet) Works: Oratorio (GCC) or Sonatas (BCM) Dynamics: Terraced (sudden changes) Ornaments: LOTS! Grace notes, trills, turns, mordents Texture: often polyphonic / contrapuntal sometimes homophonic Composers Bach Handel Topics Baroque Chamber Music (AOS2) The Great Choral Classics (AOS2) Harpsichor d

45 Classical C Musical Characteristics Instruments: Orchestra is bigger (Timpani drums are only percussion), string quartets, wind quintets Works: Oratorio (GCC), Concerto (CC) or String Quartets & Wind Quintets (CCM) Dynamics: Gradual changes Ornaments: Used less often Texture: Melody and accompaniment (homophonic) Composers Mozart Haydn Topics Classical Chamber Music (AOS2) The Classical Concerto (AOS2) The Great Choral Classics (AOS2) Balanced phrases, lyrical melodies. Alberti bass

46 Romanti c C Musical Characteristics Instruments: Orchestra is massive, Works: Oratorio (GCC), Lieder (RS), Programme Music Dynamics: Very expressive Ornaments: Used less often Texture: Anything is possible Composers Schubert Saint Saens Topics The Great Choral Classics (AOS2) Romantic Song (Schubert) (AOS2) Waltz (AOS3) Programme Music (AOS4) Very expressive. dissonance

47 Modern C Musical Characteristics Instruments: Orchestra is massive, Works: Oratorio (GCC), Lieder (RS), Programme Music, Film Music Dynamics: Very expressive Ornaments: Used less often Texture: Anything is possible Composers Orff John Williams Topics The Great Choral Classics (AOS2) Programme Music (AOS4) Film Music (AOS4) Very expressive. dissonance


Download ppt "GCSE Music Listening Exam Music Department This file contains: Links to useful revision websites Revision notes on Area of Study 2 (Shared Music) Revision."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google