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KSU Academic Decathlon – Music

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1 KSU Academic Decathlon – Music
Dr. Jeffrey Yunek Fall 2014

2 Introduction

3 Weighting of the test 20%: Elements of Music Theory
12%: Music in the Middle Ages 12%: Renaissance Era 12%: Baroque Era 12%: Classical Era 12%: Romantic Era 20%: Modern Era

4 Plan for organizing information
Focus on fundamentals first Without knowing basic terms, you will not understand information later The largest focus will be on knowing listening examples, which are typically 20% - 50% of the test This preparatory lecture will show how knowing each piece helps to remember aspects of their period Map the progression of topics between periods, such are the significance of sacred and secular works

5 Basic terms for this lecture
Texture: the relationship of instruments in a work Monophonic: single voice Polyphonic: overlapping, independent lines Homophonic: synchronous lines Tonality (mode): the organization of notes around a central pitch (tonic) Two standard types: major (happy) and minor (sad) Consonance: a pleasing combination of notes Dissonance: a disruptive combination of notes

6 Middle Ages Song 1: Anonymous, “Dies Irae”
Monophonic chant drawn from the text of the Mass Proper Importance of the religious (i.e. holy) text Polyphony and harmony are avoided so the text can be clearly heard The beat is not regular because the rhythm is based on the stress of the words

7 Middle Ages Song 2: Anonymous, “Sumer Is Icumen In”
A polyphonic piece that is structured as a round Harmony is conceived as consonant melodic lines because the concepts of chords have not been realized at this time Although sacred music was more common and better preserved than secular music, this points to the existence of secular music in the Middle Ages

8 Other aspects of the Middle Ages
Many of the chants come from Pope Gregory I (c.f. Gregorian chant) Just as the words of God come from the bible, the music comes from the Pope Know the various ways of setting chants Syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic

9 Renaissance Song 1: Palestrina, Missa L’homme armé “Kyrie”
A rich, polyphonic piece that is drawn from the Kyrie section of the Mass Ordinary As in the Middle Ages, Christianity has a strong influence on Western music The mass was an important musical event Learn all portions of the Mass Ordinary Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei Also know its counterpart, the Mass Proper, which was used for special occasions The Requiem mass--one type of Mass Proper--was used for funerals

10 Renaissance Song 2: Marenzio, “Solo e pensoso”
A secular piece for mixed chorus called a madrigal The madrigal marks the rise of popular music in Western society Note that the language is no longer Latin, but Italian In madrigals, the music often reflects the text through text painting In this song, the slow chromatic rise of the upper voice represents the text, “I measure the field…with slow, tarrying steps.”

11 Other aspects of the Renassiance
Know the impacts on humanism on sacred music Music no longer had to come from God (e.g. via the Pope), and can now come from humans Know the impacts of the Reformation Use of the native language (not Latin) in sacred music Know the response of the Counter-Reformation Know the various types of structuring a mass What is a cantus firmus, and how is it used?

12 Baroque Song 1: Monteverdi, I’incoronazione di Poppea
A Baroque opera featuring a small orchestra, chorus, and solo singers The inclusion of an opera signifies that operas began in the Baroque period The solo singing goes between two different styles Recitative: A type of singing that emulates speech Aria: Closest to a standard song featuring melismatic singing and repeated sections of music and text

13 Barouqe Song 2: Vivaldi, The Four Seasons
A violin concerto that uses text painting according to a preexisting poem The inclusion of a concerto points to the rise of the violin in music and the beginning of virtuosic instrumental playing The representation of text was a major aspect of Baroque music composition

14 Other aspects of the Baroque
Know figured bass and basso continuo Represents a change to thinking in chords Know about Monteverdi’s seconda prattica Know the most common opera terms Including libretto, aria, recitative, and castrati Know the influence of mythology on Baroque opera (L’incoronazione being an exception) This reflects the influence of the Renaissance literature Note how the lack of a sacred piece coincides with the waning influence of the church in music in the Baroque and the rise of the aristocracy

15 Classical Piece 1: Mozart, Sonata 11 in A Major, K. 331, Mvt
Classical Piece 1: Mozart, Sonata 11 in A Major, K. 331, Mvt. III “Rondo alla Turca” The fast final movement of a piano sonata Piano sonatas are for solo piano only The piece signifies the rise of the piano, which was just coming into use (cf. Cristofori ) The piece represents the composition of works for public performance Musicians like Mozart had to perform and compose their works

16 Classical Piece 2: Haydn, Symphony 94, “Surprise”, IV
One of Haydn’s late symphonies Its name derives it names from the second movement, which features a unexpected timpani hit The inclusion of a symphony marks the creation of the symphony in the Classical Period Unlike Romantic symphonies, Classical symphonies are light-hearted concert music, typically in major Although the symphony is associated with the Classical period, opera persisted as the most popular genre

17 Other aspects of the Classical Period
During the Classical period, music moved from old, modal harmony to tonal harmony Secular music became accessible to the public In the Baroque period, it was only accessible to the royalty and aristocracy Along with the symphony and sonata, the string quartet became prevalent

18 Romantic Piece 1: Schubert, Erlkönig
A German song (lied) for solo male voice The song tells of the attempted abduction and murder of a young child by the mythical Erl-king The song is dominated by the minor mode, which is used much more in the Romantic period Solo songs and song cycles are more common in the Romantic period

19 Romantic Piece 2: Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, Mvt
Romantic Piece 2: Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, Mvt. V, “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” A movement of a programmatic symphony, which depicts a congregation of witches The inclusion of another symphony marks the rise of symphony in the Romantic period As opposed to early periods, the symphony is king This Romantic symphony features far more instruments and features much more complex, dissonant harmony than Classical predecessors

20 Other aspects of the Romantic Period
The influence of Wagner: Instrumentation, leitmotifs, and endless melody The revival of the music of J. S. Bach Also marks a beginning in music scholarship The rise of nationalism in music The rise of the conservatory Up until this point, music was taught through apprenticeship

21 Modern Art Piece 1: Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No
Modern Art Piece 1: Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 1 “Mondestrunken” An early 20th-century setting of poem for voice and small ensemble This piece marks the abrupt change from standard tonality to free atonality Increased complexity and dissonance Modernism: the exploration of sound This piece features a hybrid of speech and singing called Sprechstimme

22 Modern Art Piece 2: Caine, Dripsody
An example of musique concrète , which takes tape recordings and splices them together to make a new piece This represents the onset of electronic music This ties into other attempts to blur the distinction between noise and music Cf. Cage 4’33’’

23 Modern Popular Piece 1: Bessie Smith, “Lost Your Head Blues”
A standard blues piece This represents the preservation of tonal music in the early 20th century Example of an early form of Jazz Combination of Western harmony and African concept of music The blue represents a simple Jazz form that is repetitive with fixed harmony and melody

24 Modern Popular Piece 2: Dizzy and Charlie Parker, “Shaw’ Nuff”
An example of middle-period Jazz music, featuring trumpet great Dizzy Gillespie and saxophone great Charlie Parker As opposed to blues, there is much greater variety in melody, harmony, and form Jazz features long periods of improvisation, typically instrumental sections where the music is composed spontaneously

25 Other aspects of the Modern Period
A major aspect of the modern period is modernism, the creation of new means of music Examples in art music include free tonality, serialism, primitivism, and minimalism Know the genres leading up to jazz (large focus), and jazz to rock and roll Ragtime, blues, big band, and modern jazz

26 Other things to focus on…
Again, get to know the “Elements” section in order understand concepts later (such as texture) Names and periods of all composers in the listening examples Major composers who are not listed Pope Gregory I, Hildegard von Bingen, Machaut, Josquin, J.S. Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Wagner, Verdi, John Adams

27 Good luck!

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