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By: Thomas Ennemoser, Brittany Rose, Stewart Oneal, Shawn Johnson, George Garcia, Kevin Nairn, Brady Bell, Cody McCabe, and Jacob Hinds TEAM 7: ITALY.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Thomas Ennemoser, Brittany Rose, Stewart Oneal, Shawn Johnson, George Garcia, Kevin Nairn, Brady Bell, Cody McCabe, and Jacob Hinds TEAM 7: ITALY."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Thomas Ennemoser, Brittany Rose, Stewart Oneal, Shawn Johnson, George Garcia, Kevin Nairn, Brady Bell, Cody McCabe, and Jacob Hinds TEAM 7: ITALY

2  From Hofstede to Gannon  Martin J. Gannon and cultural metaphors ◦ Distinct subcultures

3 AMERICAN FOOTBALL  tailgate party  individualism and competitive specialization  complex plays (playbook)  unpredictable outcomes, high risk, aggressive (violent), rich rewards  huddling -- people from different backgrounds and abilities come together periodically to solve short-term problems. Football is the only game in the world having a huddle after every play. Teamwork + competitive specialization.  ceremonial celebration of perfection.

4 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

5 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

6 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

7 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

8 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

9 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

10 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

11 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

12 ITALIAN OPERA  operatic overture  pageantry and spectacle  voice or lyrical quality. More vowels than consonants. Talking = singing.  exteriority. The belief that the individual cannot keep thoughts and emotions to himself/herself. Thoughts and emotions must be expressed, first in the family and then in the piazza. Equivalent to the crowd scenes in opera.  interaction between soloists and chorus, similar to the interaction between the individual and the group, and between regional identity (North or South) and national identity.

13  From Hofstede to Gannon  Martin J. Gannon and cultural metaphors  Perceptions of Multi-ethnicity ◦ Understanding & Harmony ◦ Positive, Neutral, and Negative  Equal Status, common goals, social & institutional support  Two most important features ◦ Similar physical features + Language dialects ◦ Religion?

14  Geographic Separation  Race ◦ Experts say not a valid classifier. ◦ “One-Drop” Theory

15 “Do multi-ethnic groups impede or facilitate the formation of national cultures?”  Impeding formation ◦ E.g. Iraq, Spain  Facilitating formation ◦ U.S., Canada, Australia, Singapore ◦ Confucian concept of an inclusive community

16 “Is there or will there be a clash of civilizations?”

17  Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996). ◦ Civilization is defined by common objective elements such as language, history, religions, customs, institutions, and by a subjective self- identification of people.”  Western and non-Western civilizations  Primary source of conflict is between cultural and religious lines.

18 Huntington’s “major civilizations”

19  The concepts of ethnicities and civilizations overlap. ◦ Civilization trumps ethnicity in some instances  “The clash of civilizations is not a major threat, but given tensions that exist in our globalizing world it is wise to not discount this possibility.”

20  Less than 10% of the world’s nations are monocultural  Self-Selection  Immigration creates ethnic tensions  Borderless world and borderless business favors large nations and large companies  National entities such as the EU  The nation should be used as the basic unit of analysis as opposed to relying solely on ethnic and civilizational identifications

21  Religion and Immigration are some of the most debatable issues relative to ethnicity  Infanticide, Beheadings, and Capital Punishment  Many national systems of justice are being updated periodically in terms of acceptable practices elsewhere  Multiethnicity, Religion, and History slow the pace of globalization  Religion may be the major component of all civilizations  Emile Durkheim: The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1916)

22  Major component of all civilizations & ethnic groups  Emile Durkheim The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1916) ◦ Adheres to the etymological meaning of religion  Religion directs, encourages, and restrains behavior and practices

23  Anthropomorphic – the concept of attributing humanlike features to one’s God or Gods. ◦ Confucianism and Buddhism do not follow ◦ Advantages v. Disadvantages  The Economist “Living with a Superpower”(2003) ◦ How national cultures link religion and basic values  Ideology ◦ Used to justify controversial actions

24 “Does a Religion necessarily require dogmas and creeds?”

25  Dogma- body of doctrines concerning faith, these are formally stated and proclaimed  Creed- is a fundamental belief that a specific religion represents  The diverse issues of religions tend to include an exclusionary system, which shuts out all you do not follow the faith.  Classic Conflict- Islam vs. Christianity

26  Promotes Unity of all people  Proposes that race, nation, sect, and class aside we all equally believe in one God of Supernatural Being  Tries to combine all major religions but instead of insisting on dogmas and creeds they follow seven inclusive principles

27  1. The inherent worth and dignity of every person.  2. Justice, equity, and compassion in human relations.  3. Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in local congregations.  4. A free and responsible search for truth and meaning.

28  5. The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within local Congregations and in society at large.  6. The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all.  7. Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are part

29  The Baha’i faith allows the independent creation of dogmas and creeds as long as they do not conflict with the 7 principles  The Baha’i faith only seeks to unify thus religious leaders including Protestantism, Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam are now opening up discussion into an integrated religious system.

30  Often the biggest influence on culture and religious beliefs  The early conquests of the globe has affected the religious dogmas and creeds being spread  Accordingly the technological advances of certain nations, such as guns and steel, has affected the magnitude of certain religions.

31  Definition of Culture: “a shared meaning system, found among those who speak a particular dialect, during a specific historic period, and in a definable geographic region.”  Cross-cultural exercise  Ethnocentrism

32  Business Globalization ◦ Logistics are becoming more efficient and transportation costs are decreasing ◦ 45% of global trade is intraorganizational ◦ Communication technology decreasing geographic distance  Cultural Globalization ◦ Cultural impediments to business: terrorist attacks, political differences, and ethical differences ◦ Limitations: language differences, management resistance, and computer incompatibilities

33  A controversial and emotional issue varying between different nations.  Legal and Illegal immigration is significantly correlated with globalization and is increasing dramatically.  Today we will talk about the Three Paradoxes directly related to immigration’s relationship to globalization.

34  Example: In America, immigration was welcomed highly after the formation of the nation in 1776. Immigrants were used for: ◦ Vegetation Slaves ◦ Dirty/Dangerous Jobs ◦ Build Railroads, Industries, & Towns  Through time, immigration grew so fast that they began to limit the annual number allowed, and specified what countries they could come from

35  Due to an increasingly strong competition for resources, natives rallied against allowing so many immigrants into their homeland  They created a biased daily life for those foreign to the area through: ◦ Workplace ◦ Food Availability ◦ Housing ◦ Transportation

36  Fact: The United States has 34 million immigrants, 12 million of whom are illegal. Although 6 million of the illegal immigrants are from Mexico and 2.5 million are from Latin American nations, there are significant numbers from Europe, Canada, Africa, and Asia  Fact: Immigration is vast in Western states  Fact: The main driving forces are war, famine, political persecution, employment, and escaping autocratic and repressive government

37  Fact: 4% of the European Nations population is Muslim  Fact: Australia includes 165 nationalities  Fact: 9 million Filipinos, out of the 88 million country, work abroad

38  Immigration has been around for hundreds of years and will continue in the future. It impacts multiple people along with several different nations at large. While having a great impact, the result can be a positive or negative one on the economy.

39 “Will the Issue of Immigration derail globalization?”

40  Many signs that immigration may derail the movement to globalize  Some European nations have drastically tightened up their requirements for citizenship  Developed Nations vs. Underdeveloped  Identify positive vs. negative features of immigration

41  New ideas cross national borders  Unskilled immigrants frequently take jobs others do not want  Facilitate Economic Growth

42  Cultural Integration Resistance  Overwhelm available resources  Educational  Health  Government Subsidies  Compete Directly for Jobs

43 Overview  Formulated by respected economic journalist Robert Samuelson.  Emphasis on the effects of illegal and legal immigration.  Focus is mainly on economic explanations, with both positive and negative features.

44  Negative effects of immigration ◦ Immigrants, whether legal or illegal, are generally unskilled and poorly educated during early years in the nation. ◦ These workers compete for unskilled jobs with native born workers, increasing the magnitude of the underclass. ◦ This makes it easier for employers to hire unskilled workers (whether immigrant or native born) at substandard wages.

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46  Skill levels explain most of the wage gap between lower-paid immigrants and higher paid native-born workers. ◦ Samuelson assumes that no nation has an unlimited capacity to absorb immigrants, especially when native born workers suffer from such a policy, the unabated growth of the underclass, and the increased possibility of social unrest.

47  Explanation of immigration’s effects ◦ Studies summarized by The Economist indicate that immigration, in the long-run, has had only a small negative effect on the pay of America’s least skilled. ◦ Short-run labor market disruptions ultimately disappear in the long-run, although specific groups can possibly suffer disproportionately in the short and long-run.

48  Principles and standards for resolving the paradox. ◦ Size of the underclass should not increase. ◦ Employers would be required to follow the laws, and that such laws would be strictly enforced. ◦ Introduce principles and standards proponents and opponents could accept in the debate. Can you identify other principles or standards that might be relevant for the resolving the paradox Samuelson has posed?

49  Overview of Paradox 7.11 ◦ Islam vs. Christianity ◦ Market-pricing culture vs. Equality-matching culture ◦ Free speech vs. Authority-ranking culture

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51  Islam vs. Christianity ◦ Equality-matching cultures (egalitarian), in which there is a high degree of individualism and a low degree of power distance. ◦ Only a small number of nations fall under this category. Some examples being Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations. ◦ Some of the most explosive encounters between Islam and Christianity have occurred in these nations as a result of cultural conflicts regarding the authority-ranking view of Islam and the free speech ideas of Christianity.

52  Market-Pricing vs. Equality-Matching Cultures ◦ The paradox is that some Muslim immigrants want to live in these equality matching cultures, but in an authority-ranking fashion that may result in the suppression of free speech. ◦ Whether such immigration is compatible with market-pricing and equality-matching cultures is still an open question. Comments?

53  Free-speech vs. Authority-ranking cultures ◦ To reiterate and conclude, Islam cultures favor the authority-ranking system, whereas freedom of expression and speech are a cornerstone of Western democracy. ◦ Violence has resulted in several different incidents as a result of Islamic extremists striking out against negative expressions of their culture. ◦ In conclusion, the compatibility of these cultures is still an open question.

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