Presentation on theme: "Amphibian Coccidia: Taxonomy, Host Specificity, Ecology, and Phylogeny. Matthew G. Bolek, Donald W. Duszynski, and Steve J. Upton Department of Biology,"— Presentation transcript:
Amphibian Coccidia: Taxonomy, Host Specificity, Ecology, and Phylogeny. Matthew G. Bolek, Donald W. Duszynski, and Steve J. Upton Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Kearney Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, and Division of Biological Sciences, Kansas State University
6,009 Extent Species of Amphibia (Frost, 2007) Anura Caudata Gymnophiona
Amphibian Coccidia Coccidia of frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians are the least known of all the tetrapod vertebrate classes.
Only 1 Eimeria species has been described from caecilians. Gymnophionans
Eimeria dermophis Asmundsson, Campbell and Duszynski, 2000
Host Specificity and Ecology of Amphibian Coccidia
Host Specificity and Ecology Few studies exist on host specificity of coccidian parasites of amphibians. Lavier (1941) was unable to infect the common European toad with I. brumpti recovered from the green toad. Anuran coccidia are genus specific; whereas some caudatan coccidia can infect numerous genera of salamanders in the same family.
Examination of field collected tadpoles of western chorus frogs indicated that they shed oocysts of Eimeria streckeri, Isospora cogginsi and Isospora delicatus.
N = 102 N = 44 N = 47 N = 45 Prevalence of Eimeria streckeri in Adults, Tadpoles, and Metamorphosed Western Chorus Frogs
N = 102 N = 44 N = 47 N = 45 Prevalence of Isospora cogginsi in Adults, Tadpoles, and Metamorphosed Western Chorus Frogs
N = 102 N = 44 N = 47 N = 45 Prevalence of Isospora delicatus in Adults, Tadpoles, and Metamorphosed Western Chorus Frogs
We collected western chorus frog eggs, brought them into the laboratory, and reared tadpoles.
Experimental Infections We exposed these tadpoles to coccidia oocysts.
90% (18/20) of experimentally exposed tadpoles of western chorus frogs shed oocysts of Isospora delicatus.
Tadpoles shed oocysts 9-10 days post exposure, and continued shedding oocysts for 7 days, and did not retain the infection before metamorphosis. Sporulation: Exogenous.
Tadpole and metamorphosed frog digestive system.
Other Anuran Coccidia Goussia spp. only infect tadpoles and are lost during metamorphosis, but sporulated oocysts are found in the liver sinuses of metamorphosed anurans. Hyaloklossia sp. infects tadpole and metamorphosed anuran kidneys and survives metamorphosis.
Conclusion 5,896 of the 6,009 (98%) of the amphibian species have not been examined for coccidia parasites. Field data suggests that coccidia of anurans are genus specific; whereas coccidia of caudatans are genus or family specific. Goussia spp. exhibit stadial host specificity in tadpoles, whereas Eimeria, Hyaloklossia and Isospora species can infect larval and adult amphibians. No phylogeny exist for amphibian coccidia.
Acknowledgments Miloslav Jirků (University of Vet & Pharm Scie, Czech Republic) Dr. Armando Irizarry-Rovira (Eli Lilly and Co.) Cedar Point Biological Station UNL School of Biological Sciences Special Funds, Initiative for Ecological and Evolutionary Analysis UNL, Center for Great Plains Studies