2Figurative LanguageWord or phrase that is not to be understood on a literal levelEx: It’s raining cats and dogs.
3Examples of Figurative Language: Simile: comparison using like or asMetaphor: direct comparison between two unlike thingsPersonification: giving animals, objects, or natural forces human characteristicsHyperbole: an extreme exaggerationOnomatopoeia: words that imitate the sound or action they describe
4Poetry terms cont.Alliteration: repetition of a consonant sound at the beginning of 2 or more wordsIdiom: phrases common to a language. Often confusing because the meaning of the phrase is different from the literal meaning of the words themselves.Pun: a play on words; often has two meaningsAllusion: reference to a well-known person, place, thing, or event in history, literature, art, etc.
5Language that appeals to the senses ImageryLanguage that appeals to the sensesEx: The crystal blue water cascaded down the mountain making tiny waterfalls glisten in the warm sunlight.
6Mood Tone The feeling a piece of literature evokes in the reader The author’s attitude toward his subject
7An object in literature that represents something else Symbol ThemeAn object in literature that represents something elsethe author’s message to the reader or the subject matter the author focuses on in his work
8Stanza A fixed number of lines that form a unit in a poem Couplet - two line stanzaTriplet - three lineQuatrain - four lineQuintet - five lineSestet - six lineSeptet - seven lineOctave - eight line
9Types of Poetry Narrative Poetry: poem that tells a story Lyric Poetry: expresses speaker’s thoughts and emotionsEpic Poetry: long narratives that feature heroic deedsSonnets: 14 line poem with a fixed rhyme schemeBallads: have a story similar to folk tales and often had a repeated refrainOde: poem that honors a person, place, or thing
10Narrative Poetry: “Casey at the Bat” The outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day; The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play, And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same, A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game. A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest Clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast; They thought, "If only Casey could but get a whack at that — We'd put up even money now, with Casey at the bat." But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake, And the former was a hoodoo, while the latter was a cake; So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat; For there seemed but little chance of Casey getting to the bat.
11Lyric Poetry: “Dust of Snow” The way a crowShook down on meThe dust of snowFrom a hemlock treeHas given my heartA change of moodAnd saved some partOf a day I had rued.
12Epic Poetry: “The Iliad” Sing, O goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, thatbrought countless ills upon the Achaeans. Many a brave soul didit send hurrying down to Hades, and many a hero did it yield aprey to dogs and vultures, for so were the counsels of Jovefulfilled from the day on which the son of Atreus, king of men,and great Achilles, first fell out with one another.
13Consists of 3 quatrains and a concluding couplet Shakespearean SonnetConsists of 3 quatrains and a concluding coupletAbabCdcdEfefGg
14Sonnet 018Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee.
15Ballad: “Greensleeves” Alas, my love, you do me wrong, To cast me off discourteously. For I have loved you well and long, Delighting in your company. Chorus: Greensleeves was all my joy Greensleeves was my delight, Greensleeves was my heart of gold, And who but my lady greensleeves. Your vows you've broken, like my heart, Oh, why did you so enrapture me? Now I remain in a world apart But my heart remains in captivity. chorus I have been ready at your hand, To grant whatever you would crave, I have both wagered life and land, Your love and good-will for to have. chorus If you intend thus to disdain, It does the more enrapture me, And even so, I still remain A lover in captivity.chorus My men were clothed all in green, And they did ever wait on thee; All this was gallant to be seen, And yet thou wouldst not love me. chorus Thou couldst desire no earthly thing, but still thou hadst it readily. Thy music still to play and sing; And yet thou wouldst not love me. chorus Well, I will pray to God on high, that thou my constancy mayst see, And that yet once before I die, Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me. chorus Ah, Greensleeves, now farewell, adieu, To God I pray to prosper thee, For I am still thy lover true, Come once again and love me.
16Ode: “Ode to the Dinosaurs” I sing of those who failed to make the Ark; Who would have made that cockleshell capsize. Despite their comeback in Jurassic Park Still abject failures in most people’s eyes. Absurd monstrosities – vast bulk, long necks, Thick skins, huge jaws, and brains the size of peas – “No wonder that they didn’t make the grade! Tyrannosaurus Rex? Rex, meaning king? It ruled the world? Oh please! Mankind’s achievements put theirs in the shade!”
17RhymeRepetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words
18RhymeInternal rhyme: rhyme that occurs within a line instead of the end of a lineSlant rhyme: words that are near in rhyme but not exactBlank verse: unrhymed lines of iambic pentameterFree verse: poetry without any rhythm or rhyme pattern
19Rhyme scheme The pattern of rhymed lines The cat went to the store, (a)And was seen nevermore. (a)The dog was quite glad, (b)For the cat made him very mad. (b)
20Rhyme scheme I had a cat, (A) The boy had a dog. (B) The cat ate the rat, (A)And the dog chewed a log. (B)Roses are red (A)Violets are blue (B)Sugar is sweet, (C)And so are you. (B)