Presentation on theme: "NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.)"— Presentation transcript:
1 NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.) Emulsion Detector for Future Neutrino Research Possibility of the TechnologyNAKAMURA M.(NAGOYA Univ.)
2 Emulsion in Magnetic field CONTENTSEmulsion Detector OverviewNew Study. Emulsion SpectrometerEmulsion in Magnetic fieldExpected scanning power in near future
3 Intrinsic position resolution Cross sectional view of an emulsion layerAg grain after developmentCompton ElectronFogM.I.P. Track100mmdxM.I.P. Tracks = 0.06mm30grains/100mmgrain diameter ~ 0.6mmOne Emulsion Layer = vector chamber with 60nm position resolution& ~1mrad Angular resolution (100micron layer)
4 Achievement in OPERA R&D Nuclear Emulsion FilmsSuited for Mass production ~ 100,000m2Uniform qualityRefresh function R&D byNagoya Univ. & FujifilmFast Scanning systemsin Japan & Europe125mm100mm
5 Refresh We can reset the accumulated images by Refreshing. Cosmic-raysBefore RefreshAfter RefreshCompton electrons by γ rays of natural radio activityEmulsion film accumulates all signals during its live time:No dead time.We can reset the accumulated images by Refreshing.Before use or re-use
6 OPERA ECC Brick 8cm １０ｃｍ １２．５ｃｍ 8kg： Portable Unit for 2~10kton detectors
7 Decay search Tau detection : -> OPERA τ DONUT Topological decay Kinematical analysis:Momentum measurement by Multiple Coulomb Scatterings(or Emulsion Spectrometer)Electron ID by shower detectionParticle ID by dE/dX measurementτfilmFe
8 dE/dX measurement @KEK/PS P=1.2GeV/c Hadron+ Pb dE/dX = b measurement FilmPbdE/dX = b measurementpPdE/dX~number of grains
9 dE/dX measurement : TEST exp at KEK 0.4 GeV/c0.5 GeV/c0.6 GeV/cEntry 996 tracksEntry 1310 tracksEntry 1278 tracksπππPPPDVPH0.74 GeV/c0.87 GeV/c1.14 GeV/c2.0 GeV/cEntry 1610 tracksEntry 1345 tracksEntry 1175 tracksEntry 1206 tracksπππPP&πPPDDDDUsing only 5 ~ 6 films.VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX.
10 Particle ID by dE/dx Measurement KEK Beam Test PreliminarydE/dx(MeV・cm2/g)PVPHKπeP andπMomentum(GeV/c)Using 5 ~ 6 films.VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX.Error bar is 1σof the distribution.At 2 GeV/c , proton and pion are not separated in 5 or 6 OPERA films.VPH of proton below 0.6GeV/c is saturated.
12 Electron energy measurement Test CERNMCDataEnergy determinationby calorimetric method( in study)@ a few GeV
13 Emulsion in Magnetic Field Charge Sign determination+ increase sensitivity+ increase BG-rejection powero scanning load (mention later)o cost??We have experiencein CHORUS/ET(Emulsion Tracker)
14 Structure for MC study DONUT/OPERA type target + Emulsion spectrometer BAir GapStainless steel or LeadFilm~ 3Xo ~10XoAssumption: accuracy of film by film alignment =10 micron(conservative).(Ex. 20mm gap structure gives 0.5mrad angular resolution.)
15 Charge determination (0.5T) MC >=30mm Gap20mm Gap10mm Gap
16 Momentum resolution(0.5T) MC 10mm Gap20mm Gap30mm Gap40mm Gap50mm Gap
17 Charge determination (1.0T) MC >=20mm Gap10mm Gap
18 Momentum resolution(1.0T) MC 10mm Gap20mm Gap30mm Gap40mm Gap50mm Gap
19 Summary of the MC studyEmulsion Spectrometer ( B≧0.5T,Gap > 20mm, Total Length~10cm) has power to determine sign & momentum efficiently.Further MC study:Investigate the Possibility to open the sensitivity for hadronic and electric decay mode.Sensitivity >~ x 3 (like OPERA)Technological R&D : Unique track connectionHow to keep air gapTest exp.
21 Emulsion Readout History E531, E653, etc . (~1994)Semi-automatic scanningCHORUS phase ITrack selector, New TS (1994~)DONUT, CHORUS phase IIUTS (1998~) Net scan (angle: |q|<0.4).OPERAAutomatic Scanning
22 Automatic Scanning System (present system) CCDImagerMicroscopeZ-axisCCDImagerStraight track recognition in the Tomographic imageMulti-layer image16 SlicesEmulsion layer 40~550 mm50-100mmFilm base 70~800mmNuclear Emulsion FilmEmulsion layer40~550 mm
23 Bottle necks in the Read-out System Speed of Image Data takingMovement of Z StageField of View :Objective LensMovement of X-Y stage
24 Overcome the Bottle necks Ultra High Speed Imager120 fps -> 3000 fpsImage taking by follow shotX-Y stage : Non-stopObjective lens: Driven by piezo electric devices （fres>2kHz ）.Enlarging size of Field of ViewEffective FOV:100mm×100mm-> 140mm×140mmUltra High Speed Imager with Real Time processingSynchronized motion to cancel relative velo.Stage moves at constant velocity1cm2/h -> 60cm2/h
26 Evolution of the Scanning Power 0.0080.253600.0010.010.1110100TS(TTL)NTS(CPLD)UTS(FPGA)S-UTSScanning System Historyviews/sec(1view=120×90m2)CHORUSDONUTOPERAOur code name (device technology)
27 Expected evolution of the Scanning Power in near future Enlarge a Field of View × (1.25)2reduce objective mag. × 50 -> × 40Speed up Image data taking ×4Ultra High Speed Camera 3kfps->12kfps.400cm2/hours/system.(~1m2/day/system)
28 Events in Neutrino Factory How many events?Scanning Power1 m2/day/system~ events/day/system( OPERA like ECC 1event/brick ~100cm2/event)~25,000events/year/systemNormally one lab has ~10 system~250,000 events/year/lab.Events in Neutrino Factory160,000 events/kton(L=3000km,1021mu+ decays)
29 Event selection for 10kton 10kton Total event: 1,600,000= 1,600,000/250,000~ 6 Lab・year Loose-selection is Acceptable.During the RUN : Extract and Analyze wrong sign muon events.End of the RUN : Extract all bricks which have tagged neutrino interactions in it.
30 Or Modified ATLAS TROID OPERA 1SM 850tL3 Magnet 0.5T
31 Related Works OPERA Exposure will start at the middle of 2006. Scanning in many Labs(Japan, Italy, France, Swiss….)PEANUTTest exp. at NUMI near detector site.Start neutrino exposure at AugPlan: Test of “ ECC in Magnet”with Permanent magnet (2006).
32 現在のＧＳの状況スケール2nd Super ModuleOPERA 1st Super Module
33 MINOS Near detector as mu ID PEANUT Detector :DONUT SFT+ Mini Brick Wall
34 Location of Neutrino interactions in ECC brick 1. Pick up tracks in the most downstream plateNeutrino2. Follow tracks to the interaction veretex
35 Pb measurement using Multiple Scattering Kinematical AnalysisMomentum measurementPb measurement using Multiple ScatteringFor example: 10 GeV/c has rms deflection of 0.3mm
36 Pb measurement using Multiple Scattering Momentum measurementPb measurement using Multiple ScatteringExpected Value for pionLow dE/dXConsistent with PionResolution s pb ~16%Expected Value for protonConsistent with ProtonHigher dE/dX