Presentation on theme: "NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.)"— Presentation transcript:
1NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.) Emulsion Detector for Future Neutrino Research Possibility of the TechnologyNAKAMURA M.(NAGOYA Univ.)
2Emulsion in Magnetic field CONTENTSEmulsion Detector OverviewNew Study. Emulsion SpectrometerEmulsion in Magnetic fieldExpected scanning power in near future
3Intrinsic position resolution Cross sectional view of an emulsion layerAg grain after developmentCompton ElectronFogM.I.P. Track100mmdxM.I.P. Tracks = 0.06mm30grains/100mmgrain diameter ~ 0.6mmOne Emulsion Layer = vector chamber with 60nm position resolution& ~1mrad Angular resolution (100micron layer)
4Achievement in OPERA R&D Nuclear Emulsion FilmsSuited for Mass production ~ 100,000m2Uniform qualityRefresh function R&D byNagoya Univ. & FujifilmFast Scanning systemsin Japan & Europe125mm100mm
5Refresh We can reset the accumulated images by Refreshing. Cosmic-raysBefore RefreshAfter RefreshCompton electrons by γ rays of natural radio activityEmulsion film accumulates all signals during its live time:No dead time.We can reset the accumulated images by Refreshing.Before use or re-use
6OPERA ECC Brick 8cm １０ｃｍ １２．５ｃｍ 8kg： Portable Unit for 2~10kton detectors
7Decay search Tau detection : -> OPERA τ DONUT Topological decay Kinematical analysis:Momentum measurement by Multiple Coulomb Scatterings(or Emulsion Spectrometer)Electron ID by shower detectionParticle ID by dE/dX measurementτfilmFe
8dE/dX measurement @KEK/PS P=1.2GeV/c Hadron+ Pb dE/dX = b measurement FilmPbdE/dX = b measurementpPdE/dX~number of grains
9dE/dX measurement : TEST exp at KEK 0.4 GeV/c0.5 GeV/c0.6 GeV/cEntry 996 tracksEntry 1310 tracksEntry 1278 tracksπππPPPDVPH0.74 GeV/c0.87 GeV/c1.14 GeV/c2.0 GeV/cEntry 1610 tracksEntry 1345 tracksEntry 1175 tracksEntry 1206 tracksπππPP&πPPDDDDUsing only 5 ~ 6 films.VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX.
10Particle ID by dE/dx Measurement KEK Beam Test PreliminarydE/dx(MeV・cm2/g)PVPHKπeP andπMomentum(GeV/c)Using 5 ~ 6 films.VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX.Error bar is 1σof the distribution.At 2 GeV/c , proton and pion are not separated in 5 or 6 OPERA films.VPH of proton below 0.6GeV/c is saturated.
12Electron energy measurement Test CERNMCDataEnergy determinationby calorimetric method( in study)@ a few GeV
13Emulsion in Magnetic Field Charge Sign determination+ increase sensitivity+ increase BG-rejection powero scanning load (mention later)o cost??We have experiencein CHORUS/ET(Emulsion Tracker)
14Structure for MC study DONUT/OPERA type target + Emulsion spectrometer BAir GapStainless steel or LeadFilm~ 3Xo ~10XoAssumption: accuracy of film by film alignment =10 micron(conservative).(Ex. 20mm gap structure gives 0.5mrad angular resolution.)
15Charge determination (0.5T) MC >=30mm Gap20mm Gap10mm Gap
16Momentum resolution(0.5T) MC 10mm Gap20mm Gap30mm Gap40mm Gap50mm Gap
17Charge determination (1.0T) MC >=20mm Gap10mm Gap
18Momentum resolution(1.0T) MC 10mm Gap20mm Gap30mm Gap40mm Gap50mm Gap
19Summary of the MC studyEmulsion Spectrometer ( B≧0.5T,Gap > 20mm, Total Length~10cm) has power to determine sign & momentum efficiently.Further MC study:Investigate the Possibility to open the sensitivity for hadronic and electric decay mode.Sensitivity >~ x 3 (like OPERA)Technological R&D : Unique track connectionHow to keep air gapTest exp.
21Emulsion Readout History E531, E653, etc . (~1994)Semi-automatic scanningCHORUS phase ITrack selector, New TS (1994~)DONUT, CHORUS phase IIUTS (1998~) Net scan (angle: |q|<0.4).OPERAAutomatic Scanning
22Automatic Scanning System (present system) CCDImagerMicroscopeZ-axisCCDImagerStraight track recognition in the Tomographic imageMulti-layer image16 SlicesEmulsion layer 40~550 mm50-100mmFilm base 70~800mmNuclear Emulsion FilmEmulsion layer40~550 mm
23Bottle necks in the Read-out System Speed of Image Data takingMovement of Z StageField of View :Objective LensMovement of X-Y stage
24Overcome the Bottle necks Ultra High Speed Imager120 fps -> 3000 fpsImage taking by follow shotX-Y stage : Non-stopObjective lens: Driven by piezo electric devices （fres>2kHz ）.Enlarging size of Field of ViewEffective FOV:100mm×100mm-> 140mm×140mmUltra High Speed Imager with Real Time processingSynchronized motion to cancel relative velo.Stage moves at constant velocity1cm2/h -> 60cm2/h
26Evolution of the Scanning Power 0.0080.253600.0010.010.1110100TS(TTL)NTS(CPLD)UTS(FPGA)S-UTSScanning System Historyviews/sec(1view=120×90m2)CHORUSDONUTOPERAOur code name (device technology)
27Expected evolution of the Scanning Power in near future Enlarge a Field of View × (1.25)2reduce objective mag. × 50 -> × 40Speed up Image data taking ×4Ultra High Speed Camera 3kfps->12kfps.400cm2/hours/system.(~1m2/day/system)
28Events in Neutrino Factory How many events?Scanning Power1 m2/day/system~ events/day/system( OPERA like ECC 1event/brick ~100cm2/event)~25,000events/year/systemNormally one lab has ~10 system~250,000 events/year/lab.Events in Neutrino Factory160,000 events/kton(L=3000km,1021mu+ decays)
29Event selection for 10kton 10kton Total event: 1,600,000= 1,600,000/250,000~ 6 Lab・year Loose-selection is Acceptable.During the RUN : Extract and Analyze wrong sign muon events.End of the RUN : Extract all bricks which have tagged neutrino interactions in it.
30Or Modified ATLAS TROID OPERA 1SM 850tL3 Magnet 0.5T
31Related Works OPERA Exposure will start at the middle of 2006. Scanning in many Labs(Japan, Italy, France, Swiss….)PEANUTTest exp. at NUMI near detector site.Start neutrino exposure at AugPlan: Test of “ ECC in Magnet”with Permanent magnet (2006).
32現在のＧＳの状況スケール2nd Super ModuleOPERA 1st Super Module
33MINOS Near detector as mu ID PEANUT Detector :DONUT SFT+ Mini Brick Wall
34Location of Neutrino interactions in ECC brick 1. Pick up tracks in the most downstream plateNeutrino2. Follow tracks to the interaction veretex
35Pb measurement using Multiple Scattering Kinematical AnalysisMomentum measurementPb measurement using Multiple ScatteringFor example: 10 GeV/c has rms deflection of 0.3mm
36Pb measurement using Multiple Scattering Momentum measurementPb measurement using Multiple ScatteringExpected Value for pionLow dE/dXConsistent with PionResolution s pb ~16%Expected Value for protonConsistent with ProtonHigher dE/dX