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Emulsion Detector for Future Neutrino Research Possibility of the Technology NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.)

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Presentation on theme: "Emulsion Detector for Future Neutrino Research Possibility of the Technology NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emulsion Detector for Future Neutrino Research Possibility of the Technology NAKAMURA M. (NAGOYA Univ.)

2 CONTENTS Emulsion Detector Overview New Study. Emulsion Spectrometer Emulsion in Magnetic field Expected scanning power in near future

3 Cross sectional view of an emulsion layer 30grains/100  m grain diameter ~ 0.6  m Ag grain after development dx  = 0.06  m Compton Electron Fog M.I.P. Track 100  m M.I.P. Track Intrinsic position resolution One Emulsion Layer = vector chamber with 60nm position resolution & ~1mrad Angular resolution (100micron layer)

4 Achievement in OPERA R&D Nuclear Emulsion Films Suited for Mass production ~ 100,000m 2 Uniform quality Refresh function R&D by Nagoya Univ. & Fujifilm Fast Scanning systems in Japan & Europe 125 mm 100 mm

5 Refresh Cosmic-rays Emulsion film accumulates all signals during its live time :No dead time. Compton electrons by γ rays of natural radio activity Before RefreshAfter Refresh We can reset the accumulated images by Refreshing. Before use or re-use

6 OPERA ECC Brick 10cm 12.5cm 8cm 8kg : Portable Unit for 2~10kton detectors

7 Tau detection : DONUT -> OPERA Topological decay detection: Kinematical analysis: Momentum measurement by Multiple Coulomb Scatterings (or Emulsion Spectrometer) Electron ID by shower detection Particle ID by dE/dX measurement Decay search τ Fe film

8 dE/dX measurement Pb Film P=1.2GeV/c Hadron dE/dX dE/dX =  measurement ~number of grains  P

9 dE/dX measurement : TEST exp at KEK 0.4 GeV/c0.5 GeV/c0.6 GeV/c 0.74 GeV/c0.87 GeV/c1.14 GeV/c2.0 GeV/c P P P P P P πππ ππ π D D D D D P&π Entry 1610 tracksEntry 1345 tracksEntry 1175 tracksEntry 1206 tracks Entry 996 tracks Entry 1310 tracksEntry 1278 tracks Using only 5 ~ 6 films. VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX. VPH

10 P π P andπ Using 5 ~ 6 films. VPH, measured by the system, is ~propotional to dE/dX. Error bar is 1σof the distribution. At 2 GeV/c, proton and pion are not separated in 5 or 6 OPERA films. VPH of proton below 0.6GeV/c is saturated. Particle ID by dE/dx Measurement K dE/dx (MeV ・ cm 2 /g) Momentum(GeV/c) VPH e KEK Beam Test Preliminary

11 50GeV electrons + muons Electron ID Test CERN

12 Electron energy measurement MC a few GeV Energy determination by calorimetric method ( in study) Test CERN

13 Emulsion in Magnetic Field Charge Sign determination + increase sensitivity + increase BG-rejection power o scanning load (mention later) o cost?? We have experience in CHORUS/ET(Emulsion Tracker)

14 Structure for MC study Stainless steel or Lead Film Air Gap DONUT/OPERA type target + Emulsion spectrometer B ~ 3Xo ~10Xo Assumption: accuracy of film by film alignment =10 micron (conservative). (Ex. 20mm gap structure gives 0.5mrad angular resolution.) mu

15 Charge determination (0.5T) MC 10mm Gap 20mm Gap >=30mm Gap

16 Momentum resolution(0.5T) MC 10mm Gap 20mm Gap 30mm Gap 40mm Gap 50mm Gap

17 Charge determination (1.0T) MC 10mm Gap >=20mm Gap

18 Momentum resolution(1.0T) MC 10mm Gap 20mm Gap 30mm Gap 40mm Gap 50mm Gap

19 Summary of the MC study Emulsion Spectrometer ( B ≧ 0.5T,Gap > 20mm, Total Length~10cm) has power to determine sign & momentum efficiently. Further MC study: Investigate the Possibility to open the sensitivity for hadronic and electric decay mode. Sensitivity >~ x 3 (like OPERA) Technological R&D : Unique track connection How to keep air gap Test exp.

20 Emulsion Film Read-out

21 Emulsion Readout History E531, E653, etc. (~1994) –Semi-automatic scanning CHORUS phase I –Track selector, New TS (1994~) DONUT, CHORUS phase II –UTS (1998~)  Net scan (angle: |  <0.4). OPERA Automatic Scanning

22 CCD Imager Film base 70~800  m Microscope Z-axis Emulsion layer 40~550  m Nuclear Emulsion Film CCD Imager Emulsion layer 40~550  m Automatic Scanning System (present system) Multi-layer image 16 Slices  m Straight track recognition in the Tomographic image

23 Bottle necks in the Read-out System Speed of Image Data taking Movement of Z Stage Field of View : Objective Lens Movement of X-Y stage

24 Overcome the Bottle necks Stage moves at constant velocity Synchronized motion to cancel relative velo. Ultra High Speed Imager with Real Time processing Ultra High Speed Imager –120 fps -> 3000 fps Image taking by follow shot –X-Y stage : Non-stop –Objective lens: Driven by piezo electric devices ( f res >2kHz ). Enlarging size of Field of View –Effective FOV: 100  m×100  m-> 140  m×140  m 1cm 2 /h -> 60cm 2 /h

25 SUTS + Old stage

26 TS(TTL)NTS(CPLD)UTS(FPGA)S-UTS Scanning System History views/sec ( 1view=120×90  m 2 ) Evolution of the Scanning Power Our code name (device technology) CHORUSDONUTOPERA

27 Expected evolution of the Scanning Power in near future Enlarge a Field of View × (1.25) 2 reduce objective mag. × 50 -> × 40 Speed up Image data taking ×4 Ultra High Speed Camera 3kfps->12kfps. 400cm 2 /hours/system. (~1m 2 /day/system)

28 How many events? Scanning Power 1 m 2 /day/system~ 100events/day/system ( OPERA like ECC 1event/brick ~100cm 2 /event) ~25,000events/year/system Normally one lab has ~10 system ~250,000 events/year/lab. Events in Neutrino Factory 160,000 events/kton (L=3000km,10 21 mu + decays)

29 Event selection for 10kton 10kton Total event: 1,600,000 = 1,600,000/250,000 ~ 6 Lab ・ year Loose-selection is Acceptable. During the RUN : Extract and Analyze wrong sign muon events. End of the RUN : Extract all bricks which have tagged neutrino interactions in it.

30 L3 Magnet 0.5T OPERA 1SM 850t Or Modified ATLAS TROID

31 Related Works OPERA Exposure will start at the middle of Scanning in many Labs (Japan, Italy, France, Swiss….) PEANUT Test exp. at NUMI near detector site. Start neutrino exposure at Aug Plan: Test of “ ECC in Magnet” with Permanent magnet (2006).

32 OPERA 1 st Super Module 2nd Super Module

33 PEANUT Detector :DONUT SFT+ Mini Brick Wall MINOS Near detector as mu ID

34 Location of Neutrino interactions in ECC brick 1. Pick up tracks in the most downstream plate Neutrino 2. Follow tracks to the interaction veretex

35 P  measurement using Multiple Scattering For example: 10 GeV/c has rms deflection of 0.3  m Kinematical Analysis Momentum measurement

36 Low dE/dX Higher dE/dX Consistent with Pion Consistent with Proton P  measurement using Multiple Scattering Expected Value for pion Expected Value for proton Resolution  p  


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