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Journal 9/23 What do you think it means to be ethical? Date/Copy/Answer You need your books today!!!!! 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Journal 9/23 What do you think it means to be ethical? Date/Copy/Answer You need your books today!!!!! 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Journal 9/23 What do you think it means to be ethical? Date/Copy/Answer You need your books today!!!!! 1

2 Journal 9/25 What do you think you should study to prepare for the quiz on early civilizations? Copy/Date/Answer Current events due tomorrow!!! 2

3 Journal 9/23 What do you think it means to be ethical? Date/Copy/Answer You need your books today!!!!! 3

4 Journal 9/24 So far, how does Malala’s life in the book compare and contrast with your life? Date/Copy/Answer 4

5 Journal 9/26 Study!!! 5

6 Ancient Indian Civilizations Vocabulary Remember to read the definition, then use your own words when writing it down. 1.Monsoons 2.Citadel 3.Sanskrit 4.Brahmins 5.Epics 6.Bhagavad Gita 7.Caste System 8.Monism 9.Maya 10.Reincarnation 11.Nirvana 12.Polygyny 13.Suttee 14.Inoculation 6 When you are finished get out your timeline. Decorate the front however you would like. Add dates from chapter two that you think were important. *The timelines on pg.18 and pg. 48 will help you.

7 Read section 1 of chapter 3 7

8 Journal 9/30 Human migration has been an important part of society throughout history. How does immigration affect the society of the US today? Copy/Date/Answer 8

9 After Quiz Corrections Make a chart that lists at least 10 facts about the Harappa civilization (includes Mohenjo Daro), using the information on pages Organize your chart into four columns labeled: government, religion, technology, and economy. 9

10 Using the information in Chapter 3 Section 2, compare and contrast the Indo-Aryan Migrants to the Egyptians (Chapter 2 Section 1 &2). Religion Geography & Protection Economy Trading Transportation Contributions/Achievements Etc… 10

11 Epic: long historical or religious poem Begin to brainstorm about a historical poem you can write about your life. You may write about one specific event that happened to you or you may choose to write an epic about your entire life. Half a page It can rhyme, but it does not have to If you do not finish it is homework! 11

12 Journal 10/1 Describe the social classes in American society. Date/Copy/Answer 12

13 Journal 10/2 Describe the social classes in American society? Date/ Copy/ Answer 13

14 Journal 10/7 How is the Indian caste system and Hinduism related? Date/Copy/Answer Journals due today! 14

15 Hinduism and Buddhism Chapter 3 Section 3 15

16 Introduction to Hinduism Around 700 b.c., some Indian religious thinkers started to question the authority of the Brahmins and spread their messages through the Ganges Plain. Their beliefs became known as Vedanta (end of Vedas) and were written in Upanishads (written explanations of the Vedas). People who could not read nor write had to learn through stories or epics through word of mouth. Epic of Ramayana: Rama, a prince and an incarnation of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sita. Sita was kidnapped by a demon. Rama had to rescue her and became a king. They became role models for men and women. 16

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18 Social Class Between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 500 a caste system developed in Indian society after the Indo-Aryan migration. 4 distinct Varnas (social classes) 1.Rulers and Warriors 2.Brahmins 3.Merchants, Traders, and Farmers 4.Peasants A fifth group that did not even belong in a Varna, were the untouchables or pariahs. Only held jobs that were considered unclean. Later, the Varna were split into smaller subgroups, called jati. Strict rules Determined jobs 18

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20 Hinduism Interwoven with the caste system. Developed from the Brahmin priests explanations of the Vedas. Divine essence called Brahmin fills everything Everyone has an individual essence called Atman. Teaches that Brahmin and Atman are one in the same. All things in the universe are the same essence as God = Monism. Teaches that the world is an illusion, Maya, and you must reject it. Believed it took a long to recognize and reject Maya and that is why a persons soul must be reborn over and over (Reincarnation). 20

21 Two Principles of Hinduism 1.Dharma: doing one’s moral duty in this life so that the soul can advance in the next life. 2.Karma: the good or bad force created by a person’s actions. People who fulfill their dharma will have good karma and be reborn into a higher social group. People who receive bad karma will be reborn into a lower social group or as animals. 3.Souls that grow spiritually eventually reach nirvana. When the cycle of reincarnation is complete and the soul unites with Brahmin. 21

22 Hindu Religious Practice Often practice yoga, a set of mental and physical exercises designed to bring the body and soul together. Festivals including rituals, music, dancing, eating, and drinking. Represent the seasonal course of nature and welcome the return of a season. Cows are sacred Provide power for plows and carts Produce milk and butter for food Therefore they are protected by law 22

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24 Beginning of Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha Gautama, aka Buddha. He was the son of a wealthy prince of the region. Grew up with every luxury there was and knew nothing about real- life hardships such as poverty, disease, fear, or ordinary life. He ventured out at the age of 29, and was shocked to learn about the everyday life of others. He left his family and lifestyle to search for truth and meaning (the Great Renunciation). Practiced yoga and fasted so much he almost died. But he did not find the answers he was looking for. After six years of searching, he sat under a tree meditating and felt he now understood the way of life, which is the moment he became Buddha. Spent the rest of his life teaching his followers to pursue the way of life. 24

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26 Buddha’s Teachings He accepted some Hindu ideas, including reincarnation. However, he thought salvation comes from knowing the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Paths. Taught ethics – a code of morals and conduct Believed desire causes suffering and stressed the importance of selflessness. Did not accept the Hindu gods, but taught that priests should live peaceful, moral lives of poverty. Any person, regardless of caste system could reach nirvana. 26

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28 Spread of Buddhism Buddha only had a few followers during his lifetime. However, over several centuries, his teaching won the wide acceptance of Asia. Between 200 B.C. an d A.D. 200, Buddhism split into two branches: Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada – Followed traditional beliefs of Buddhism and regarded Buddha as a great teacher and spiritual leader. Mahayana – regarded Buddha as a god and savior. 28

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30 The Four Noble Truths Get into groups of 4. Each person in the group will pick one of The Four Nobles Truths to write about. Each student should write a paragraph (5-7 sentences) about what their Noble Truth means. Provide examples of how they can be applied to everyday life. When you are finished discuss each Noble Truth with your group. Pg

31 Exit Ticket Write down at least two main ideas that you learned about Hinduism and Buddhism. 31

32 Journal 10/6 Do you think cultural advances are a good way to measure the historical significance of a nation? What are the top 5 achievements that you think the United States will be remembered for in the future? Date/Copy/Answer Journals due today!!!! 32

33 10/9 No journal today! 33

34 Ancient Indian Dynasties and Empires Chapter 3 Section 4 34

35 The Mauryan Empire Around 500 B.C. Ancient India was not unified, Northern India had at least 16 kingdoms. The most powerful kingdom Magadha tried to unify India. Was conquered by the Persian ruler Darius the Great around 510 B.C. Regained control until about 320 B.C., when their power started to decline. A young adventurer Chandragupta Maurya established the Mauryan Empire and they ruled for about 150 years. A Greek diplomat that worked in the Mauryan court kept detailed records of his experiences, so that is how we know so much about Chandragupta’s rule. 35

36 Chandragupta Maurya’s Rule Built a palace at Pataliputra on the Ganges River. Raised an army of 600,000 soldiers with chariots and elephants. Army united northern India from the Ganges River to the region west of the Indus River. Workers dug mines and built centers for spinning and weaving. Standardized weights and measures throughout the empire. Established standards for physicians. 36

37 Asoka Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka, came to power in about 270 B.C. Fought many bloody wars to expand the empire to all of India except the southern tip. First imperial dynast to hold nearly all of India. Grew tired of violent battles and killing, so he became a Buddhist. Many more people became Buddhist and he sent missionaries to other countries to spread the faith. “The Beloved of the Gods…honors members of all sects….Whoever honors his own sect and disparages [speaks ill of] another man’s …does his own sect the greatest possible harm. Concord [harmony] is best, with each hearing and respecting each other’s teachings.” Worked to improve living conditions throughout the empire. 37

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39 The Gupta Empire After his death in about 232 B.C. the empire started to decline. His sons fought each other for the throne and the northern province was attacked by outside invaders. The empire collapsed. In return, Buddhism started to decline as well, and Hinduism became more prominent in India In the A.D. 300’s the Gupta family came to power and took over Magadha. Ruler Chandra Gupta I Expanded through conquest and conquest and intermarriage. Hinduism became the dominant religion Chandra Gupta II ( A.D.)- great progress was made in the arts 39

40 Ancient Indian Life and Culture Chapter 3 Section 5 40

41 Read Through Chapter 3 Section 5 Identify and list the cultural advances of the Ancient Indians. Explain what the advances are and why they are significant. Add significant/memorable dates to your timeline 41

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43 10/10 No Journal! 43

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45 Cultural Advances and Achievements Trade: expanded to northern India under the Guptas; silks, cotton, wool, ivory, spices, and precious gems. Far East, Southwest Asia, Africa, and Europe Fables from the Panchatantra (five books) – stories with morals that taught good characteristics. Translated to many other languages Drama- plays Murals painted in caves – depicted daily life and Buddha Architects designed temples Built thousands of Stupas – dome shaped shrines where they placed objects associated with Buddha. Education: higher caste children received formal education studying many subjects; lower caste children learned crafts or trades. Nalanda – a famous Buddhist university Mathematics- Algebra – Aryabhata (one of the 1 st to use Algebra) Astronomy – identified 7 planets and understood the rotation of the earth and predicted eclipses of the sun and moon. Medicine – bone setting and plastic surgery, developed inoculation (infecting a person with the mild form of a disease so they will become immune to the more serious form). Smallpox Built free hospitals and practiced cleanliness procedures 45

46 10/13 No journal! If you haven’t turned in your journal yet, do that! 46

47 10/14 No journal! If you haven’t turned in your journal yet, do that! 47

48 Agree or Disagree?? On a blank sheet of paper, write whether you agree or disagree with the following statements (support your point of view with an explanation): Cultures that grow in isolation from other cultures generally do not develop new ideas, nor do they emphasize inquiry and innovation. Unsuccessful foreign invasions have little or no effect on the way that a culture grows or develops. Leaders who combine harsh rule with actions to help their people are often successful. 48

49 Vocabulary: Chapter 4 1.Loess 2.Dikes 3.Bureaucracy 4.Animism 5.Oracle Bones 6.Dialects 7.Calligraphy 8.Autocracy 9.Civil Service System 10.Leveling 11.Yin 12.Yang 13.Genealogy 14.Acupuncture 49

50 Geographic and Cultural Influences Chapter 4 Section 1 After finishing the worksheet, do the skills practice questions on pg. 77. This will be turned in and used to assess how well you can analyze maps. 50

51 Chapter 4 Section 2 Go ahead and make a chart titled “Developments Under the Shang Dynasty.” Label 3 columns: Farming Advances Craft Advances Government Accomplishments If you finish this, you may go ahead and start reading the section to find the developments. We will go through this chapter at the beginning of next class. 51

52 Journal 10/15 How did cultures without writing pass down their history from one generation to the next? Copy/Date/Answer 52

53 Journal 10/16 How did cultures without writing pass down their history from one generation to the next? Copy/Date/Answer 53

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55 Journal 10/20 What are the qualities that make a good leader? Date/Copy/Answer 55

56 10/21 What are the qualities that make a good leader? Copy/Date/Answer 56

57 Chapter 4 Section 3: The Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties 57

58 The Zhou Dynasty Conquest of China in about 1050 – 256 B.C. Formed alliances with several smaller states to the south and west of the Shang and eventually defeated them. No centralized government. Gave territory to members of the royal family and their allies Rulers of territories gave military service and tribute to the Zhou Kings. Rulers believed that the god of Heaven decides who rules China = Mandate of Heaven. Around 700 B.C., the kings were losing control as the local rulers were fighting among themselves. The dynasty as a whole grew weak and was often attacked by outsiders. Legend of King Yu In 771 B.C., invaders destroyed the capital and they had to flee eastward and establish a new capital. Lasted for 500 more years, until what is known as the Warring States began to compete for control. 58

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60 The Qin Dynasty One of the Warring States, The Qin, emerged victorious in 221 B.C. due to their military strength. The ruler was a man named Cheng, who gave himself the title as the first emperor. Only lasted 15 years, but made many contributions to Chinese life. The Western name for ‘China’ = Cheng Replaced the feudal system of the Zhou dynasty and unified China. Extended their territory and maintained control by establishing an autocracy. Cheng did not like scholars to investigate and discuss problems freely. He suppressed and even executed ones that criticized the government. Began to build defensive walls around their borders. Later dynasties added to it, connected together making the Great Wall of China (1,500 miles long during Qin Dynasty). Forced labor was used for public works like the Great Wall, which made the people angry and discontent. In 206 B.C., a rebel army revolted, the same year Liu Bang (a commoner who had become a Qin general) overthrew the empire and founded his own know as the Han. 60

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62 The Han Dynasty Liu Ban took the title, King of Han and the dynasty became known as the Han Dynasty. Kept the idea of a centralized gov’t like the Qin, however, they kept power for about 400 years. Made so many developments that influenced China today. Many Chinese today call themselves “People of Han.” Liu Ch’e, the longest ruler, greatly extended the empire. The Han ruled over an area larger than the Roman Empire. Established a civil service system to govern China. Runs the day-to-day business of the gov’t. Created a system of examinations to select the most qualified candidates for civil service positions. Liu Ch’e established an imperial university to train people. Liu Ch’e established an economic policy called leveling. Using price controls to balance farm surpluses or shortages. Prosperous trade along the Silk Road. Paper, a Chinese invention, spread to the western world. 62

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64 Dynasty Quick Write Decide whether you would have preferred to live under Zhou, Qin, or Han rule. Write a paragraph that supports your point of view. A paragraph is 5-7 sentences! 64

65 Exit Ticket Do you think the Han emperor’s rule was an example of a pure autocracy, or an arrangement that placed obligations on both rulers and people. Give reasons to support your answer. 65

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67 Journal 10/22 How are a society’s values reflected in their laws? Copy/Date/Answer 67

68 Chapter 4 Section 4: Philosophies of Ancient China 68

69 Beliefs Balance: Everything in the world results from a balance between two forces, yin and yang. Yin = Female, Dark, & Passive Yang = Male, Bright, & Active Yin and yang do not conflict each other, they work together and depend on each other. Balance in human affairs is a normal condition. Ex) extremes such as harsh gov’t or anarchy should not last long. 69

70 Confucius Chinese philosophers developed new ideas to explain economic, political, and social change during the Zhou era. Leading philosopher – Confucius ( 551 B.C. – 479 B.C.) Teaching were collected in analects His teachings later became known as Confucianism Confucianism had the largest impact on philosophy in Chinese life. 3 principles as the basis of the philosophy: 1.Family 2.Respect for one’s elders 3.And reverence for the past and one’s ancestors Didn’t teach about religion, gods, death, life after death, or issues of faith Only concerned with political and social unrest; emphasized how moral and ethical leadership could solve those problems. 70

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72 Confucianism Confucius encouraged China’s leaders to show strong, positive behavior. He believed this could be done in two ways: 1.Willingly accept his/her position in society & perform the duties of that role 2.Gov’t and leaders be virtuous (correct behavior towards others). He believed leaders should be honest and honorable instead of focusing on power and wealth. Their greatest interest should be the welfare and happiness of the people. People would more willingly follow a leader who followed his guidelines. Mencius, a strong supporter of Confucianism, also believed people had a right to rebel against a weak or harsh ruler. Ex) unjust rulers who oppress their people surrendered their right to rule and should be overthrown, by force if necessary. Their teachings became part of China’s classical tradition over time. 72

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74 Daoism Appeared about the same time as Confucianism. According to legend, Laozi (LOWD-ZOO) founded the philosophy. It’s central idea, Dao, is defined as “the way.” An indescribable force that governed the universe and all of nature. Taught that people should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature so they could understand the Dao and live with it in harmony. Laozi thought people should not strive for material wealth. Unlike, Confucius, he shunned politics and advised people not to seek power. Their only concern should be to bring themselves into harmony with Dao by being humble, quiet, and thoughtful. 2 nd in importance to Chinese philosophy behind Confucianism. Appealed to many kinds of people 74

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76 Legalism & Buddhism Like Confucianism, Legalism concerned itself with politics. However, Legalists believed in power not virtue Harsh laws People are naturally selfish and untrustworthy Peace and prosperity could only be reached by enforcing harsh punishment to those that broke the laws. When the Han dynasty fell, people found comfort in the values of Buddhism because it emphasized charity and compassion, ideals that other philosophies had overlooked. Mahayana Buddhism (Buddha as savior) was more popular. Believed Buddha was committed to help all humans escape from the miseries of the world. 76

77 Impact of Philosophy in China Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism provided moral and ethical guides to right living. They strongly influenced Chinese social ideals, attitudes, and individual and group behavior. Legalism provided a strong foundation for Chinese government. Confucianism won the most followers. 77

78 Group Writing Activity Each person from your group will take on the role of either a Daoist, a Legalist, or a Confucian. Discuss and debate within your roles and teachings the following questions: 1.What should be the main goal in life? 2.Are people basically bad or good? 3.What is the best kind of government? When you are finished debating with your group, make a graphic organizer explaining each philosophy based on the debate. What are the consequences of following each philosophy? 78


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