6Ancient Indian Civilizations Vocabulary Remember to read the definition, then use your own words when writing it down.MonsoonsCitadelSanskritBrahminsEpicsBhagavad GitaCaste SystemMonismMayaReincarnationNirvanaPolygynySutteeInoculationWhen you are finished get out your timeline. Decorate the front however you would like. Add dates from chapter two that you think were important. *The timelines on pg.18 and pg. 48 will help you.
8Journal 9/30Human migration has been an important part of society throughout history. How does immigration affect the society of the US today?Copy/Date/Answer
9After Quiz Corrections Make a chart that lists at least 10 facts about the Harappa civilization (includes Mohenjo Daro), using the information on pages Organize your chart into four columns labeled: government, religion, technology, and economy.
10Using the information in Chapter 3 Section 2, compare and contrast the Indo-Aryan Migrants to the Egyptians (Chapter 2 Section 1 &2).ReligionGeography & ProtectionEconomyTradingTransportationContributions/AchievementsEtc…
11Epic: long historical or religious poem Begin to brainstorm about a historical poem you can write about your life. You may write about one specific event that happened to you or you may choose to write an epic about your entire life.Half a pageIt can rhyme, but it does not have toIf you do not finish it is homework!
12Journal 10/1 Describe the social classes in American society. Date/Copy/Answer
13Journal 10/2 Describe the social classes in American society? Date/ Copy/ Answer
14Journal 10/7 How is the Indian caste system and Hinduism related? Date/Copy/AnswerJournals due today!
16Introduction to Hinduism Around 700 b.c., some Indian religious thinkers started to question the authority of the Brahmins and spread their messages through the Ganges Plain.Their beliefs became known as Vedanta (end of Vedas) and were written in Upanishads (written explanations of the Vedas).People who could not read nor write had to learn through stories or epics through word of mouth.Epic of Ramayana: Rama, a prince and an incarnation of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sita. Sita was kidnapped by a demon. Rama had to rescue her and became a king. They became role models for men and women.
18Social ClassBetween 1500 B.C. and A.D. 500 a caste system developed in Indian society after the Indo-Aryan migration.4 distinct Varnas (social classes)Rulers and WarriorsBrahminsMerchants, Traders, and FarmersPeasantsA fifth group that did not even belong in a Varna, were the untouchables or pariahs.Only held jobs that were considered unclean.Later, the Varna were split into smaller subgroups, called jati.Strict rulesDetermined jobs
20Hinduism Interwoven with the caste system. Developed from the Brahmin priests explanations of the Vedas.Divine essence called Brahmin fills everythingEveryone has an individual essence called Atman.Teaches that Brahmin and Atman are one in the same.All things in the universe are the same essence as God = Monism.Teaches that the world is an illusion, Maya, and you must reject it.Believed it took a long to recognize and reject Maya and that is why a persons soul must be reborn over and over (Reincarnation).
21Two Principles of Hinduism Dharma: doing one’s moral duty in this life so that the soul can advance in the next life.Karma: the good or bad force created by a person’s actions.People who fulfill their dharma will have good karma and be reborn into a higher social group.People who receive bad karma will be reborn into a lower social group or as animals.Souls that grow spiritually eventually reach nirvana.When the cycle of reincarnation is complete and the soul unites with Brahmin.
22Hindu Religious Practice Often practice yoga, a set of mental and physical exercises designed to bring the body and soul together.Festivals including rituals, music, dancing, eating, and drinking.Represent the seasonal course of nature and welcome the return of a season.Cows are sacredProvide power for plows and cartsProduce milk and butter for foodTherefore they are protected by law
24Beginning of Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha Gautama, aka Buddha. He was the son of a wealthy prince of the region.Grew up with every luxury there was and knew nothing about real-life hardships such as poverty, disease, fear, or ordinary life.He ventured out at the age of 29, and was shocked to learn about the everyday life of others.He left his family and lifestyle to search for truth and meaning (the Great Renunciation).Practiced yoga and fasted so much he almost died. But he did not find the answers he was looking for.After six years of searching, he sat under a tree meditating and felt he now understood the way of life, which is the moment he became Buddha.Spent the rest of his life teaching his followers to pursue the way of life.
26Buddha’s TeachingsHe accepted some Hindu ideas, including reincarnation.However, he thought salvation comes from knowing the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Paths.Taught ethics – a code of morals and conductBelieved desire causes suffering and stressed the importance of selflessness.Did not accept the Hindu gods, but taught that priests should live peaceful, moral lives of poverty.Any person, regardless of caste system could reach nirvana.
28Spread of BuddhismBuddha only had a few followers during his lifetime.However, over several centuries, his teaching won the wide acceptance of Asia.Between 200 B.C. an d A.D. 200, Buddhism split into two branches: Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.Theravada – Followed traditional beliefs of Buddhism and regarded Buddha as a great teacher and spiritual leader.Mahayana – regarded Buddha as a god and savior.
30The Four Noble TruthsGet into groups of 4. Each person in the group will pick one of The Four Nobles Truths to write about. Each student should write a paragraph (5-7 sentences) about what their Noble Truth means. Provide examples of how they can be applied to everyday life. When you are finished discuss each Noble Truth with your group.Pg. 64
31Exit TicketWrite down at least two main ideas that you learned about Hinduism and Buddhism.
32Journal 10/6Do you think cultural advances are a good way to measure the historical significance of a nation? What are the top 5 achievements that you think the United States will be remembered for in the future?Date/Copy/AnswerJournals due today!!!!
34Ancient Indian Dynasties and Empires Chapter 3 Section 4
35The Mauryan EmpireAround 500 B.C. Ancient India was not unified, Northern India had at least 16 kingdoms.The most powerful kingdom Magadha tried to unify India.Was conquered by the Persian ruler Darius the Great around 510 B.C.Regained control until about 320 B.C., when their power started to decline.A young adventurer Chandragupta Maurya established the Mauryan Empire and they ruled for about 150 years.A Greek diplomat that worked in the Mauryan court kept detailed records of his experiences, so that is how we know so much about Chandragupta’s rule.
36Chandragupta Maurya’s Rule Built a palace at Pataliputra on the Ganges River.Raised an army of 600,000 soldiers with chariots and elephants.Army united northern India from the Ganges River to the region west of the Indus River.Workers dug mines and built centers forspinning and weaving.Standardized weights and measuresthroughout the empire.Established standards for physicians.
37Asoka Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka, came to power in about 270 B.C. Fought many bloody wars to expand the empire to all of India except the southern tip.First imperial dynast to hold nearly all of India.Grew tired of violent battles and killing, so he became a Buddhist.Many more people became Buddhist and he sent missionaries to other countries to spread the faith.“The Beloved of the Gods…honors members of all sects….Whoever honors his own sect and disparages [speaks ill of] another man’s …does his own sect the greatest possible harm. Concord [harmony] is best, with each hearing and respecting each other’s teachings.”Worked to improve living conditions throughout the empire.
39The Gupta EmpireAfter his death in about 232 B.C. the empire started to decline.His sons fought each other for the throne and the northern province was attacked by outside invaders.The empire collapsed.In return, Buddhism started to decline as well, and Hinduism became more prominent in IndiaIn the A.D. 300’s the Gupta family came to power and took over Magadha.Ruler Chandra Gupta IExpanded through conquest andconquest and intermarriage.Hinduism became the dominant religionChandra Gupta II ( A.D.)-great progress was made in the arts
40Ancient Indian Life and Culture Chapter 3 Section 5
41Read Through Chapter 3 Section 5 Identify and list the cultural advances of the Ancient Indians. Explain what the advances are and why they are significant.Add significant/memorable dates to your timeline
45Cultural Advances and Achievements Trade: expanded to northern India under the Guptas; silks, cotton, wool, ivory, spices, and precious gems.Far East, Southwest Asia, Africa, and EuropeFables from the Panchatantra (five books) – stories with morals that taught good characteristics.Translated to many other languagesDrama- playsMurals painted in caves – depicted daily life and BuddhaArchitects designed templesBuilt thousands of Stupas – dome shaped shrines where they placed objects associated with Buddha.Education: higher caste children received formal education studying many subjects; lower caste children learned crafts or trades.Nalanda – a famous Buddhist universityMathematics- Algebra – Aryabhata (one of the 1st to use Algebra)Astronomy – identified 7 planets and understood the rotation of the earth and predicted eclipses of the sun and moon.Medicine – bone setting and plastic surgery, developed inoculation (infecting a person with the mild form of a disease so they will become immune to the more serious form).SmallpoxBuilt free hospitals and practiced cleanliness procedures
4610/13No journal!If you haven’t turnedin your journal yet,do that!
4710/14No journal!If you haven’t turned in your journal yet, do that!
48Agree or Disagree??On a blank sheet of paper, write whether you agree or disagree with the following statements (support your point of view with an explanation):Cultures that grow in isolation from other cultures generally do not develop new ideas, nor do they emphasize inquiry and innovation.Unsuccessful foreign invasions have little or no effect on the way that a culture grows or develops.Leaders who combine harsh rule with actions to help their people are often successful.
49Vocabulary: Chapter 4 Loess Autocracy Dikes Civil Service System BureaucracyLevelingAnimismYinOracle BonesYangDialectsGenealogyCalligraphyAcupuncture
50Geographic and Cultural Influences Chapter 4 Section 1After finishing the worksheet, do the skills practice questions on pg. 77. This will be turned in and used to assess how well you can analyze maps.
51Chapter 4 Section 2Go ahead and make a chart titled “Developments Under the Shang Dynasty.”Label 3 columns:Farming AdvancesCraft AdvancesGovernment AccomplishmentsIf you finish this, you may go ahead and start reading the section to find the developments. We will go through this chapter at the beginning of next class.
52Journal 10/15How did cultures without writing pass down their history from one generation to the next?Copy/Date/Answer
53Journal 10/16How did cultures without writing pass down their history from one generation to the next?Copy/Date/Answer
55Journal 10/20 What are the qualities that make a good leader? Date/Copy/Answer
5610/21What are the qualities that make a good leader?Copy/Date/Answer
57Chapter 4 Section 3: The Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties
58The Zhou Dynasty Conquest of China in about 1050 – 256 B.C. Formed alliances with several smaller states to the south and west of the Shang and eventually defeated them.No centralized government.Gave territory to members of the royal family and their alliesRulers of territories gave military service and tribute to the Zhou Kings.Rulers believed that the god of Heaven decides who rules China = Mandate of Heaven.Around 700 B.C., the kings were losing control as the local rulers were fighting among themselves.The dynasty as a whole grew weak and was often attacked by outsiders.Legend of King YuIn 771 B.C., invaders destroyed the capital and they had to flee eastward and establish a new capital.Lasted for 500 more years, until what is known as the Warring States began to compete for control.
60The Qin DynastyOne of the Warring States, The Qin, emerged victorious in 221 B.C. due to their military strength.The ruler was a man named Cheng, who gave himself the title as the first emperor.Only lasted 15 years, but made many contributions to Chinese life.The Western name for ‘China’ = ChengReplaced the feudal system of the Zhou dynasty and unified China.Extended their territory and maintained control by establishing an autocracy.Cheng did not like scholars to investigate and discuss problems freely.He suppressed and even executed ones that criticized the government.Began to build defensive walls around their borders.Later dynasties added to it, connected together making the Great Wall of China (1,500 miles long during Qin Dynasty).Forced labor was used for public works like the Great Wall, which made the people angry and discontent.In 206 B.C., a rebel army revolted, the same year Liu Bang (a commoner who had become a Qin general) overthrew the empire and founded his own know as the Han.
62The Han DynastyLiu Ban took the title, King of Han and the dynasty became known as the Han Dynasty.Kept the idea of a centralized gov’t like the Qin, however, they kept power for about 400 years.Made so many developments that influenced China today.Many Chinese today call themselves “People of Han.”Liu Ch’e, the longest ruler, greatly extended the empire.The Han ruled over an area larger than the Roman Empire.Established a civil service system to govern China.Runs the day-to-day business of the gov’t.Created a system of examinations to select the most qualified candidates for civil service positions.Liu Ch’e established an imperial university to train people.Liu Ch’e established an economic policy called leveling.Using price controls to balance farm surpluses or shortages.Prosperous trade along the Silk Road.Paper, a Chinese invention, spread to the western world.
67Journal 10/22 How are a society’s values reflected in their laws? Copy/Date/Answer
68Chapter 4 Section 4: Philosophies of Ancient China
69BeliefsBalance:Everything in the world results from a balance between two forces, yin and yang.Yin = Female, Dark, & PassiveYang = Male, Bright, & ActiveYin and yang do not conflict each other, they work together and depend on each other.Balance in human affairs is a normal condition.Ex) extremes such as harsh gov’t or anarchy should not last long.
70ConfuciusChinese philosophers developed new ideas to explain economic, political, and social change during the Zhou era.Leading philosopher – Confucius ( 551 B.C. – 479 B.C.)Teaching were collected in analectsHis teachings later became known as ConfucianismConfucianism had the largest impact on philosophy in Chinese life.3 principles as the basis of the philosophy:FamilyRespect for one’s eldersAnd reverence for the past and one’s ancestorsDidn’t teach about religion, gods, death, life after death, or issues of faithOnly concerned with political and social unrest; emphasized how moral and ethical leadership could solve those problems.
72ConfucianismConfucius encouraged China’s leaders to show strong, positive behavior.He believed this could be done in two ways:Willingly accept his/her position in society & perform the duties of that roleGov’t and leaders be virtuous (correct behavior towards others).He believed leaders should be honest and honorable instead of focusing on power and wealth.Their greatest interest should be the welfare and happiness of the people.People would more willingly follow a leader who followed his guidelines.Mencius, a strong supporter of Confucianism, also believed people had a right to rebel against a weak or harsh ruler.Ex) unjust rulers who oppress their people surrendered their right to rule and should be overthrown, by force if necessary.Their teachings became part of China’s classical tradition over time.
74Daoism Appeared about the same time as Confucianism. According to legend, Laozi (LOWD-ZOO) founded the philosophy.It’s central idea, Dao, is defined as “the way.”An indescribable force that governed the universe and all of nature.Taught that people should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature so they could understand the Dao and live with it in harmony.Laozi thought people should not strive for material wealth.Unlike, Confucius, he shunned politics and advised people not to seek power.Their only concern should be to bring themselves into harmony with Dao by being humble, quiet, and thoughtful.2nd in importance to Chinese philosophy behind Confucianism.Appealed to many kinds of people
76Legalism & BuddhismLike Confucianism, Legalism concerned itself with politics.However, Legalists believed in power not virtueHarsh lawsPeople are naturally selfish and untrustworthyPeace and prosperity could only be reached by enforcing harsh punishment to those that broke the laws.When the Han dynasty fell, people found comfort in the values of Buddhism because it emphasized charity and compassion, ideals that other philosophies had overlooked.Mahayana Buddhism (Buddha as savior) was more popular.Believed Buddha was committed to help all humans escape from the miseries of the world.
77Impact of Philosophy in China Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism provided moral and ethical guides to right living.They strongly influenced Chinese social ideals, attitudes, and individual and group behavior.Legalism provided a strong foundation for Chinese government.Confucianism won the most followers.
78Group Writing Activity Each person from your group will take on the role of either a Daoist, a Legalist, or a Confucian. Discuss and debate within your roles and teachings the following questions:What should be the main goal in life?Are people basically bad or good?What is the best kind of government?When you are finished debating with your group, make a graphic organizer explaining each philosophy based on the debate.What are the consequences of following each philosophy?