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1/29 Get out Classification Booklet

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1 1/29 Get out Classification Booklet
We are going to grade “Class shows closeness” Reminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3rd


3 I. Kingdom Eubacteria (True Bacteria)
Bacteria are located everywhere – air, water, land, on and in living organisms, including people. A. General Characteristics: 1. All are unicellular 2. All are prokaryotic (no nucleus) 3. Can live in both aerobic (with O2) and anaerobic (without O2) environments

4 B. Example pili (attachment) ribosomes genetic material cytoplasm
flagella (movement) cell membrane (inner) cell wall (outer)

5 Example: E. coli Cytoplasm Genetic Material Cell Wall Cell Membrane
Flagella Example: E. coli

6 Bacteria are much larger in size than viruses, but
smaller than cells.

7 C. Cell Wall – all bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan protein
+ -

8 1. Gram staining determines the type of cell wall
Gram +  Purple/violet Gram -  Red, more complex cell wall Gram-positive Staph aureus at the top Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the bottom.

9 How do antibiotics work?
2. Antibiotic used to cure bacterial infection depends on: Gram + or Gram – 3. Antibiotics work by disrupting the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall. 4. Gram – bacteria are harder to treat due to complexity of cell wall.

10 D. Causes disease: 1. destroys cells – of infected organisms by breaking them down for food 2. releases toxins – that travel throughout the body interfering with normal activity of the host Scanning electron microscopy image of bacteria (the cylindrical objects) attached to host cells. These bacteria are in the process of injecting the host cells with the toxins. (Credit: Hebrew University illustration)

11 E. Three Shapes 1. cocci – round staphlo - cluster 2. bacilli – rod strepto - chain 3. spirilla – spiral

12 Coccus (Sphere-shaped) Ex: Streptococcus Bacilli (rod-shaped) Ex: Lactobacillus Spirillum (Spiral-shaped) Ex: Spirillum

13 What shape? bacillus spirillum coccus spirillum coccus bacillus

14 F. Survival 1. tough outer coat forms around DNA and cytoplasm of some bacteria – endospore can survive a long time and in harsh conditions ex: tetanus in soil

15 G. Importance: 1. Beneficial a. breakdown and obtain energy from dead materials -- decomposers

16 Example: Compost piles need microorganisms (ex
Example: Compost piles need microorganisms (ex. bacteria) to decompose (breakdown) matter.

17 b. dairy industry - bacteria in 2:08 minute video
yogurt, sour cream and cheese From Sourdough to Swiss Cheese: Bacteria in Food

18 c. Oil spills – digest petroleum, can clean up small oil spills

19 1/30 Get out Classification packet
We are going to check homework Reminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3rd

20 d. Genetic engineering—
Recombinant DNA – insert human genes into bacteria plasmid Ex: bacteria produce human insulin for diabetes

21 relationship where both organisms benefit-- mutualism
e. relationship between two different organisms-- symbiosis relationship where both organisms benefit-- mutualism example: E. coli in intestines helps us digest food and make vitamins. In return, human intestines provide food and shelter for bacteria. (This strain of E. coli is different from the E. coli strain that causes food poisoning.)

22 Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria
3:07 minute video Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria

23 Anthrax Tetanus Strep Throat 2. Harmful : diseases –
pneumonia, strep throat, tuberculosis, tooth decay, bad breath, syphilis, anthrax, tetanus, Lyme disease, staph, bacterial meningitis, botulism Anthrax Strep Throat Tetanus

24 3:15 minute video Antibiotics

25 b. food spoilage and poisoning – caused by
Salmonella and Staphylococcus (handout) c. antibiotics fight bacterial infections, but often have – digestive side effects some bacteria are able to survive in presence of antibiotics that kill other bacteria – antibiotic resistant bacteria

26 Note: This is why doctors tell you to take the entire amount of medicine given even if you start to feel better because if not, bacteria will have the chance to evolve and become antibiotic resistant.

27 Geyser II. Kingdom Archaebacteria Salt Lake City
First known prokaryotes- Archaebacteria (archae=ancient) b. Live in very harsh environments – Halophiles: “salt loving”, use osmotic pressure and chemical substances to help control the amount of salt inside the cell. Located The Great Salt Lake, Dead Sea, evaporation ponds. Thermophiles: contain adaptations that allow them to live in areas of high temperature ( °F). Located Yellowstone National Park, deep sea hydrothermal vents Salt Lake City Hydrothermal vents

28 Industrial Uses for Bacteria
3:12 minute video Industrial Uses for Bacteria

29 Methanogen bacteria: Live in intestines of animals, especially cows and other grazing animals –
They convert C and H into methane (CH4) gas which reacts with O2 to produce CO2, which affects our – atmosphere by producing CO2 for photosynthesis

30 2/2 Get out Classification Booklet
We are doing the Virus/Bacteria Station Lab today Reminder: Quiz tomorrow over Classification and Bacteria Notes Tutorials will be offered after school with Ms. Tran or tomorrow during enrichment

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