3 I. Kingdom Eubacteria (True Bacteria) Bacteria are located everywhere – air, water, land, on and in living organisms, including people.A. General Characteristics:1. All are unicellular2. All are prokaryotic (no nucleus)3. Can live in both aerobic (with O2) and anaerobic (without O2) environments
4 B. Example pili (attachment) ribosomes genetic material cytoplasm flagella (movement)cell membrane (inner)cell wall (outer)
5 Example: E. coli Cytoplasm Genetic Material Cell Wall Cell Membrane FlagellaExample: E. coli
6 Bacteria are much larger in size than viruses, but smaller than cells.
7 C. Cell Wall – all bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan protein +-
8 1. Gram staining determines the type of cell wall Gram + Purple/violetGram - Red, more complex cell wallGram-positive Staph aureus at the topGram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the bottom.
9 How do antibiotics work? 2. Antibiotic used to cure bacterial infection depends on: Gram + or Gram – 3. Antibiotics work by disrupting the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall. 4. Gram – bacteria are harder to treat due to complexity of cell wall.
10 D. Causes disease:1. destroys cells – of infected organisms by breaking them down for food2. releases toxins – that travel throughout the body interfering with normal activity of the hostScanning electron microscopy image of bacteria (the cylindrical objects) attached to host cells. These bacteria are in the process of injecting the host cells with the toxins. (Credit: Hebrew University illustration)
11 E. Three Shapes1. cocci – roundstaphlo - cluster2. bacilli – rodstrepto - chain3. spirilla – spiral
13 What shape?bacillusspirillumcoccusspirillumcoccusbacillus
14 F. Survival1. tough outer coat forms around DNA and cytoplasm of some bacteria – endosporecan survive a long time and in harsh conditions ex: tetanus in soil
15 G. Importance:1. Beneficiala. breakdown and obtain energy from dead materials -- decomposers
16 Example: Compost piles need microorganisms (ex Example: Compost piles need microorganisms (ex. bacteria) to decompose (breakdown) matter.
17 b. dairy industry - bacteria in 2:08 minute video yogurt, sour cream and cheeseFrom Sourdough to Swiss Cheese: Bacteria in Food
18 c. Oil spills – digest petroleum, can clean up small oil spills
19 1/30 Get out Classification packet We are going to check homeworkReminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3rd
20 d. Genetic engineering— Recombinant DNA – insert human genes into bacteria plasmidEx: bacteria produce human insulin for diabetes
21 relationship where both organisms benefit-- mutualism e. relationship between two different organisms-- symbiosisrelationship where both organisms benefit-- mutualismexample: E. coli in intestines helps us digest food and make vitamins. In return, human intestines provide food and shelter for bacteria.(This strain of E. coli is different from the E. coli strain that causes food poisoning.)
22 Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria 3:07 minute videoInfectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria
25 b. food spoilage and poisoning – caused by Salmonella and Staphylococcus (handout)c. antibiotics fight bacterial infections, but often have – digestive side effectssome bacteria are able to survive in presence of antibiotics that kill other bacteria – antibiotic resistant bacteria
26 Note: This is why doctors tell you to take the entire amount of medicine given even if you start to feel better because if not, bacteria will have the chance to evolve and become antibiotic resistant.
27 Geyser II. Kingdom Archaebacteria Salt Lake City First known prokaryotes-Archaebacteria (archae=ancient)b. Live in very harsh environments –Halophiles: “salt loving”, use osmotic pressure and chemical substances to help control the amount of salt inside the cell.Located The Great Salt Lake, Dead Sea, evaporation ponds.Thermophiles: contain adaptations that allow them to live in areas of high temperature ( °F).Located Yellowstone National Park, deep sea hydrothermal ventsSalt Lake CityHydrothermal vents
28 Industrial Uses for Bacteria 3:12 minute videoIndustrial Uses for Bacteria
29 Methanogen bacteria: Live in intestines of animals, especially cows and other grazing animals – They convert C and H into methane (CH4) gas which reacts with O2 to produce CO2, which affects our – atmosphere by producing CO2 for photosynthesis
30 2/2 Get out Classification Booklet We are doing the Virus/Bacteria Station Lab todayReminder: Quiz tomorrow over Classification and Bacteria NotesTutorials will be offered after school with Ms. Tran or tomorrow during enrichment