Presentation on theme: "1/29 Get out Classification Booklet – We are going to grade “Class shows closeness” Reminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3 rd."— Presentation transcript:
1/29 Get out Classification Booklet – We are going to grade “Class shows closeness” Reminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3 rd
I. Kingdom Eubacteria (True Bacteria) Bacteria are located everywhere – air, water, land, on and in living organisms, including people. A. General Characteristics: 1. All are unicellular 2. All are prokaryotic (no nucleus) 3. Can live in both aerobic (with O 2 ) and anaerobic (without O 2 ) environments
pili (attachment) cytoplasm cell membrane (inner) ribosomes genetic material flagella (movement) cell wall (outer) B. Example
Bacteria are much larger in size than viruses, but smaller than cells.
C. Cell Wall – all bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan protein + -
1. Gram staining determines the type of cell wall Gram + Purple/violet Gram - Red, more complex cell wall Gram-positive Staph aureus at the topStaph aureus Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the bottom.Pseudomonas aeruginosa
How do antibiotics work? 2. Antibiotic used to cure bacterial infection depends on: Gram + or Gram – 3. Antibiotics work by disrupting the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall. 4. Gram – bacteria are harder to treat due to complexity of cell wall.
D. Causes disease: 1. destroys cells – of infected organisms by breaking them down for food 2. releases toxins – that travel throughout the body interfering with normal activity of the host Scanning electron microscopy image of bacteria (the cylindrical objects) attached to host cells. These bacteria are in the process of injecting the host cells with the toxins. (Credit: Hebrew University illustration)
E. Three Shapes 1. cocci – round staphlo - cluster 2. bacilli – rod strepto - chain 3. spirilla – spiral
coccusbacillus spirillum coccusspirillumbacillus What shape?
F. Survival 1. tough outer coat forms around DNA and cytoplasm of some bacteria – endospore can survive a long time and in harsh conditions ex: tetanus in soil
G. Importance: 1. Beneficial a. breakdown and obtain energy from dead materials -- decomposers
Example: Compost piles need microorganisms (ex. bacteria) to decompose (breakdown) matter.
b. dairy industry - bacteria in 2:08 minute video yogurt, sour cream and cheese From Sourdough to Swiss Cheese: Bacteria in Food
c. Oil spills – digest petroleum, can clean up small oil spills
1/30 Get out Classification packet – We are going to check homework Reminder: Quiz next Tuesday February 3rd
d. Genetic engineering— Recombinant DNA – insert human genes into bacteria plasmid Ex: bacteria produce human insulin for diabetes
e. relationship between two different organisms-- symbiosis relationship where both organisms benefit-- mutualism example: E. coli in intestines helps us digest food and make vitamins. In return, human intestines provide food and shelter for bacteria. (This strain of E. coli is different from the E. coli strain that causes food poisoning.)
3:07 minute video Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria
b. food spoilage and poisoning – caused by Salmonella and Staphylococcus (handout) c. antibiotics fight bacterial infections, but often have – digestive side effects some bacteria are able to survive in presence of antibiotics that kill other bacteria – antibiotic resistant bacteria
Note: This is why doctors tell you to take the entire amount of medicine given even if you start to feel better because if not, bacteria will have the chance to evolve and become antibiotic resistant.
Geyser II. Kingdom Archaebacteria a.First known prokaryotes- Archaebacteria (archae=ancient) b. Live in very harsh environments – Halophiles: “salt loving”, use osmotic pressure and chemical substances to help control the amount of salt inside the cell. Located The Great Salt Lake, Dead Sea, evaporation ponds. Thermophiles: contain adaptations that allow them to live in areas of high temperature ( °F). Located Yellowstone National Park, deep sea hydrothermal vents Hydrothermal vents
3:12 minute video Industrial Uses for Bacteria
Methanogen bacteria: Live in intestines of animals, especially cows and other grazing animals – They convert C and H into methane (CH 4 ) gas which reacts with O 2 to produce CO 2, which affects our – atmosphere by producing CO 2 for photosynthesis
2/2 Get out Classification Booklet – We are doing the Virus/Bacteria Station Lab today Reminder: Quiz tomorrow over Classification and Bacteria Notes Tutorials will be offered after school with Ms. Tran or tomorrow during enrichment