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Quiz Today Look over notes from last time. Look over notes from last time.

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Presentation on theme: "Quiz Today Look over notes from last time. Look over notes from last time."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quiz Today Look over notes from last time. Look over notes from last time.

2 Finishing Up the War Chapter 18, Section 3-5

3 The War in 1917 By 1917, the war had been on for three years. Many hoped the U.S. could help end it. By 1917, the war had been on for three years. Many hoped the U.S. could help end it. “DOUGHBOYS” – Name for U.S. soldiers in the war. “DOUGHBOYS” – Name for U.S. soldiers in the war. Why was it so bloody? Why was it so bloody? TRENCH WARFARE – On the “western front,” trenches were built on both sides with a “NO MAN’S LAND” in between.TRENCH WARFARE – On the “western front,” trenches were built on both sides with a “NO MAN’S LAND” in between. This makes a DEFENSIVE WAR – lots of killing, very little progress being made.This makes a DEFENSIVE WAR – lots of killing, very little progress being made.

4 Russia: Backing Up and Leaving the War By 1917, things had gotten pretty bad in Russia. There was not enough food for the Russian people, and all of the country’s $$ was being used to fight the war. By 1917, things had gotten pretty bad in Russia. There was not enough food for the Russian people, and all of the country’s $$ was being used to fight the war. The large number of poor people in Russia start to blame Czar Nicholas II. The large number of poor people in Russia start to blame Czar Nicholas II. The people revolt, the army sides with the people, and the Czar gets scared and quits. The people revolt, the army sides with the people, and the Czar gets scared and quits.

5 So You Overthrew the Government: What’s Next? For the first time in hundreds of years, Russia is without a monarch. For the first time in hundreds of years, Russia is without a monarch. A number or groups, known as “Soviets” attempt to take control. A number or groups, known as “Soviets” attempt to take control. The leaders of the Soviets were SOCIALISTS – they wanted POLITICAL and ECONOMIC equality. The leaders of the Soviets were SOCIALISTS – they wanted POLITICAL and ECONOMIC equality.

6 Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Two groups (or Soviets) fought for power: Two groups (or Soviets) fought for power: Mensheviks – Wanted MODERATE changeMensheviks – Wanted MODERATE change Bolsheviks – Wanted RADICAL changes, total equality, and wanted Russia out of the war.Bolsheviks – Wanted RADICAL changes, total equality, and wanted Russia out of the war. The BOLSHEVIKS were led by VLADIMIR LENIN. Believed in the ideas of MARX…The BOLSHEVIKS were led by VLADIMIR LENIN. Believed in the ideas of MARX…

7 The October Revolution (In November) On November 7, 1917, the Bolsheviks take control and call themselves the COMMUNIST PARTY. On November 7, 1917, the Bolsheviks take control and call themselves the COMMUNIST PARTY. They have to fight a CIVIL WAR for three years, but eventually they defeat their enemies. They have to fight a CIVIL WAR for three years, but eventually they defeat their enemies. The RED ARMY (Communists) vs. the WHITE ARMY (more moderate revolutionaries and czar supporters) The RED ARMY (Communists) vs. the WHITE ARMY (more moderate revolutionaries and czar supporters)

8 Russia Gets Out In 1918, Russia accepts the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ends their fighting with Germany. In 1918, Russia accepts the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ends their fighting with Germany. Russia gets the bad end of this – they lose a lot of land to Germany – but they just wanted out. Russia gets the bad end of this – they lose a lot of land to Germany – but they just wanted out.

9 An End to War By June 1918, the Germans had pushed into Allied territory, but their attack stalls. By June 1918, the Germans had pushed into Allied territory, but their attack stalls. By 1918, the Allies (with Americans) push back, and by November, they had broken open the German lines of defense. By 1918, the Allies (with Americans) push back, and by November, they had broken open the German lines of defense. On 11/11/1918 at 11 am, an ARMISTACE (agreement to stop fighting) ends the war. On 11/11/1918 at 11 am, an ARMISTACE (agreement to stop fighting) ends the war.

10 A Flawed Peace “Big Four” participate in peace conference at VERSAILLES. “Big Four” participate in peace conference at VERSAILLES. Wilson – U.S.Wilson – U.S. David Lloyd George – BritainDavid Lloyd George – Britain Georges Clemenceau – FranceGeorges Clemenceau – France Vittorio Orlando -- ItalyVittorio Orlando -- Italy European countries want a HARSH punishment – want Germany to suffer for what they have done. European countries want a HARSH punishment – want Germany to suffer for what they have done. Wilson feels like it needs to be less harsh. He is worried that the peace will fail. Wilson feels like it needs to be less harsh. He is worried that the peace will fail.

11 FOURTEEN POINTS Wilson has a plan for a “lasting peace” called the Fourteen points. Wilson has a plan for a “lasting peace” called the Fourteen points. Some of its high points: Some of its high points: Free tradeFree trade Disarmament (less weapons)Disarmament (less weapons) Freedom of the SeasFreedom of the Seas Open diplomacyOpen diplomacy LEAGUE OF NATIONS – a group of nations that would help promote peace and avoid future wars.LEAGUE OF NATIONS – a group of nations that would help promote peace and avoid future wars.

12 TREATY OF VERSAILLES Germany eventually signs the TREATY of VERSAILLES. Germany eventually signs the TREATY of VERSAILLES. Stripped of its armed forcesStripped of its armed forces Forced to pay REPARATIONS of $33 billionForced to pay REPARATIONS of $33 billion Had to say the war’s start was their fault.Had to say the war’s start was their fault. It does have Wilson’s League of Nations in it – he likes that. It does have Wilson’s League of Nations in it – he likes that.

13 LEAGUE of NATIONS The idea behind the League of Nations was that it would be a place for countries to settle their disputes without war. The idea behind the League of Nations was that it would be a place for countries to settle their disputes without war. There would also be a WORLD COURT. It would deal with people who break international laws. There would also be a WORLD COURT. It would deal with people who break international laws. Countries that joined promised that they would not go to war with each other. They would submit their problem to the League or the World Court and let them find a solution. Countries that joined promised that they would not go to war with each other. They would submit their problem to the League or the World Court and let them find a solution. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS would be used to handle disputes. Military action would be a last resort. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS would be used to handle disputes. Military action would be a last resort.

14 Don’t punch a man when he’s down… Kick him because it’s easier… Wilson comes back with the ToV for Congress to ratify. Wilson comes back with the ToV for Congress to ratify. Two groups wouldn’t ratify the treaty. They were worried that it would take away the power of Congress to declare war. Two groups wouldn’t ratify the treaty. They were worried that it would take away the power of Congress to declare war. “Irreconcilables” wouldn’t ratify it for any reason.“Irreconcilables” wouldn’t ratify it for any reason. “Reservationists” wanted changes before they ratified. Led by HENRY CABOT LODGE.“Reservationists” wanted changes before they ratified. Led by HENRY CABOT LODGE. Wilson campaigns hard to the people, has a stroke, but won’t compromise with Congress. Wilson campaigns hard to the people, has a stroke, but won’t compromise with Congress. The U.S. never ratifies the Treaty of Versailles. The U.S. never ratifies the Treaty of Versailles.

15 What does Europe look Like after the War? As bad as things were for Germany, things weren’t that great for Austria-Hungary. As bad as things were for Germany, things weren’t that great for Austria-Hungary. Two countries – Austria and Hungary – come from part of A-H’s former land.Two countries – Austria and Hungary – come from part of A-H’s former land. A new country – Czechoslovakia – comes from a big part of what was Hungary.A new country – Czechoslovakia – comes from a big part of what was Hungary. A country called YUGOSLAVIA unites all the Slavs together into one group.A country called YUGOSLAVIA unites all the Slavs together into one group. Germany and A-H gave up land to make POLAND.Germany and A-H gave up land to make POLAND.

16 Europe: Before and After…

17 The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was broken up into a bunch of new countries, including: The Ottoman Empire was broken up into a bunch of new countries, including: TurkeyTurkey PalestinePalestine SyriaSyria IraqIraq

18 The Armenian Genocide The Ottoman Empire wasn’t just fighting during the war. During this time, the OE launched a genocide against a group of people – known as Armenians – in their country. The Ottoman Empire wasn’t just fighting during the war. During this time, the OE launched a genocide against a group of people – known as Armenians – in their country. Scholars believe that somewhere between million Armenians were killed during this genocide.Scholars believe that somewhere between million Armenians were killed during this genocide.

19 "I am confident that the whole history of the human race contains no such horrible episode as this. The great massacres and persecutions of the past seem almost insignificant when compared to the sufferings of the Armenian race in 1915." --Henry Morgenthau, Sr. US Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire "I am confident that the whole history of the human race contains no such horrible episode as this. The great massacres and persecutions of the past seem almost insignificant when compared to the sufferings of the Armenian race in 1915." --Henry Morgenthau, Sr. US Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire

20 Reading Directions Read, “The Home Front in Germany” Read, “The Home Front in Germany” As you read follow these directions. As you read follow these directions. Highlight key points about life in GermanyHighlight key points about life in Germany Make notes in the margin.Make notes in the margin. When you have finished write a 5 sentence paragraph summarizing what life was like in Germany. When you have finished write a 5 sentence paragraph summarizing what life was like in Germany.


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