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The Cold War (1945 – 1991).

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War (1945 – 1991)."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War (1945 – 1991)

2 What was the Cold War? The Cold War: a period of tension, threats, and competition between communist nations led by the Soviet Union and anti-communist nations led by the U.S. The Cold war began at the end of WWII in 1945 and ended with the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 The U.S. and the Soviet Union never attacked each other

3 The Superpowers The United States The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)
Government: democratic republic Economic System: capitalism (free-enterprise) Cold War Goal: wanted to stop the spread of communism The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Government: totalitarian dictatorship Economic System: communism Cold War Goal: wanted to spread communism throughout the world

4 Communism Classless society
No rich, middle class, or poor All wealth is distributed evenly among the people No ownership of private property All property is owned by the government Economy is strictly controlled by the government All farms, factories, mines, etc. are run by the government Individuals cannot earn profit from businesses Prices and wages are set by the government Government decides what and how much to produce

5 Capitalism Free-enterprise: economy is free from government control
Individuals are allowed to own property Businesses are privately owned and operated for profit Economy is driven by competition Businesses compete for profits Workers compete for wages Pay is usually based on productivity and skill level A market economy Wages are negotiated at the workplace Prices are negotiated in the marketplace Society is divided into classes Rich, middle class, poor

6 Cold War Alliances

7 Europe After WWII

8 Communism in Europe Soviet military occupied countries of Eastern and Central Europe during WWII Stalin refused to hold free elections and instead set up communist governments This created a “buffer zone” that protected the Soviet Union from invasion Iron Curtain: cold war dividing line between communist Eastern Europe and non-communist Western Europe Western Europe Anti-communist Democratic governments Influenced by the United States Eastern Europe Communist Totalitarian governments Dominated by the Soviet Union

9 Division of Germany After WWII, Germany was divided by Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union (USSR) Each nation was supposed to run its “zone” until free elections could be held Berlin – the capital of Germany Located in Soviet zone (East Germany) Also divided into zones run by G.B, France, U.S., USSR

10 Conflict over Germany U.S. and Soviets disagreed about reuniting Germany President Truman (U.S.) wanted to reunite Germany and allow free elections British, French, and American zones united to form West Germany Included West Berlin (even though it was located in East Germany) Stalin feared united Germany could attack the USSR The Soviets refused to allow their zone to become part of a united Germany Soviet zone became East Germany Included East Berlin

11 Berlin The Blockade The Berlin Airlift The Berlin Wall
Soviets blockaded West Berlin in effort to end plans to unify Germany The Berlin Airlift Airplanes were used by Allies to deliver food and supplies to West Berlin Soviets eventually lifted blockade The Berlin Wall Built around West Berlin by the communists Kept people from Communist East Germany from leaving Anyone who tried to climb over was shot Became a symbol for the division between Communist and anti-Communist nations of the World

12 The Cold War Heats Up!

13 U.S. Fights Communism Containment: plan to stop the spread of communism The Truman Doctrine: U.S. policy to help weaker nations prevent communist takeover Money and weapons were given to countries that were fighting against communist rebels Ex. Greece and Turkey Introduced containment policy The Marshall Plan: U.S. plan to give aid to nations of Western Europe to prevent communist takeovers Gave $13 billion to help rebuild economies damaged by WWII Western Europeans were no longer desperate and most weren’t interested in turning to communism

14 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
NATO: anti-communist military alliance created to protect member nations from threats by communist forces Led by the United States Included anti-communist nations from all over the world Helped fight the spread of communism

15 The Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact: communist military alliance created to protect member nations from anti-communist forces Created in response to the creation of NATO Led by the Soviet Union Included communist nations from Central and Eastern Europe

16 A Divided World

17 The Spread of Communism

18 Communism Spreads to China
China during WWII Ruled by Nationalist Party (KMT) Led by Chiang Kai-shek Anti-communist ally of the United States Communist Revolution Communist rebels fight Nationalists for power Nationalists flee to Taiwan Communists take control of China (1949) People’s Republic of China is established Mao Zedong becomes dictator

19 Communist China Great Leap Forward (1958): Chairman Mao’s five-year economic plan to modernize China Rapid shift from farming to industry Privately-owned farms were seized and combined to form large government-run farms Many peasants were taken from farms and forced to work in factories Very harsh treatment of those who resisted Results Production of low-quality manufactured goods Food shortages: million people died of starvation Many Chinese began rebelling against Mao’s harsh form of communism

20 Communist China Cultural Revolution ( ): Chairman Mao’s effort to increase control of China and create a more “pure” communist state Red Guards: gangs of young people ordered by Chairman Mao to destroy “old” ideas and attack anyone who opposed communist views Mao’s enemies were purged from Communist Party Led to years of chaos

21 Korea After WWII, Korea was divided Korean War (1950-1953)
North Korea was communist South Korea was anti-communist Korean War ( ) North Koreans invaded South Korea Supplied by USSR and China Wanted to unite the two Koreas under a communist government The United Nations (UN) sent troops (mostly Americans) to protect South Korea and to stop the spread of communism The Chinese sent troops into North Korea to fight the UN Armistice (ceasefire) signed (1953) The border between North and South Korea was set at the 38th Parallel (38 ۫۫ N latitude) Communism was contained South Korea remained non-communist

22 Vietnam Vietnam was divided (1955) North Vietnam was communist
Led by Ho Chi Minh Supported by China and the Soviet Union South Vietnam was anti-communist Supported by the U.S. and France

23 Vietnam War (1957-1975) Vietnam War (1957-1975)
Viet Cong communist guerrillas tried to take over South Vietnam Backed by North Vietnam, China, and USSR U.S. involvement in Vietnam (1960s ) U.S. sent aid to South Vietnam Money, weapons, and military advisors U.S. began sending troops to Vietnam (1964) 1.5 million Vietnamese and 58,000 Americans died Americans were bitterly divided over war Anti-war protests push U.S. to end war U.S. withdrew troops from Vietnam ( ) Communists took over South Vietnam (1975) Vietnam reunited as communist nation U.S. failed to contain communism

24 Cuba Cuba was communist The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Led by Fidel Castro Supported by the Soviet Union The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Soviet Union brought nuclear missiles to Cuba American spy planes took photos of the missile sites Huge threat to U.S. security! Cuba is only 90 miles away from the U.S. Missiles could easily reach major U.S. cities The U.S. and the Soviets came very close to nuclear war U.S. President John F. Kennedy demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles from Cuba Cuba was blockaded by the U.S. navy until the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, agreed to remove the missiles as long as the U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba Nuclear war was avoided!

25 Struggle for Influence in Africa
After WWII, African nations began fighting for independence The United States and the Soviet Union competed for influence in the African countries Gave money and military aid Tried to spread their ideas Some African nations chose not to take sides

26 The Race For Technology

27 Nuclear and Military Technology
Nuclear power Nuclear weapons The United States and the Soviet Union had nuclear weapons Both nations feared a nuclear war nuclear annihilation: total destruction by nuclear weapons Arms Race U.S. President Ronald Reagan challenged the USSR to an arms race by building up the American military USSR couldn’t keep up!

28 Space Technology The Space Race: competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to control outer space Soviets put first man-made satellite (Sputnik) into orbit put first man in space Americans put first men on the moon US took lead in space technology/exploration Eventually, both countries began to cooperate in space exploration

29 The End of The Cold War

30 Communism Fails Failures of Communism
Most Communist countries were struggling by the 1980’s Economic failures Extreme poverty Food shortages Political (government) failures Corruption Harsh treatment of people Very few freedoms

31 Reform in the Soviet Union (1985-1991)
Mikhail Gorbachev: leader who reformed the Soviet Union Perestroika: restructuring of Soviet economy and government Allowed some private ownership and profit Created a Soviet Parliament Glasnost: openness of government and freedom of speech Allowed people to openly criticize or disagree with the government Self-determination: people of Eastern Europe could choose their own governments The Soviet military would no longer be used to keep Communist governments of other nations in power

32 The Collapse of Communist Governments
Changes in Europe Anti-Communist Revolutions begin in Eastern Europe (1989) The Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) Germany is reunified under a democratic government (1990) The Breakup of the Soviet Union (1991) The Soviet Union split into 15 countries (Russia is the largest)

33 Changes in China By the 1980s, many people in China were unhappy with the ruling Communist government Tiananmen Square Massacre (1989) Hundreds of pro-democracy demonstrators were massacred by Chinese military China has relaxed its communist economic policies but it remains a totalitarian nation

34 Special Thanks to: Google Images ClipArt
Ben Bindewald author of Power Point

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