Presentation on theme: "The Holocaust The Holocaust took place between 1933 and 1945."— Presentation transcript:
1The Holocaust The Holocaust took place between 1933 and 1945. During that time 6 million Jews (2/3 of the total European Jewish population) were killed.The Nazis believed that Germans were “superior” and that the Jews were “inferior”, thus killing them.Additional groups were targeted resulting in 5 million people being killed due to differences such as race, religious beliefs, political views, and physical disabilities.
2The Holocaust and WWII: Timeline Jan 30, 1933 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of GermanyMarch 20, 1933 – first concentration camp – DachauSept 15, 1935 – Nuremberg Race lawsNov 9, 1938 – KristallnachtSept 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland – WWII in EuropeOct 8, 1939 – first ghetto in PolandDec 7, 1941 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor – US declares warMar 27, 1942 – Germany begins deportation of 65,000 jews to AuschwitzJuly 15, 1942 – continued deportation – 100,000 to AuschwitzJan 27, 1945 – Soviets liberate AuschwitzApril 29, 1945 – U.S. liberate DachauApril 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide
3Adolf Hitler Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933 He is known for his leadership role in the rise of fascism in Europe, World War II, and The Holocaust.Fascism is a radical attempt to create a nation where everyone is the same; violence was used to accomplish that goal.These views were evident in the book he wrote – Mein Kampf – where he used propaganda to share his views of the superiority of the “Aryan race.”
4Propaganda definition: distorted information that is systematically spreadThe Nazi party used propaganda to gain and maintain power as well as implement their policies.Prior to 1929, the main mode of propaganda for the Nazi party was Hitler and a few others who spoke publicly.Propaganda become more organized when Hitler appointed Goebbels, a former journalist, to the head of party propaganda.Jews were blamed for robbing German people while avoiding physical labor, themselves.A German newspaper stated that Jews kidnapped small children before Passover because “Jews need the blood of a Christian child”Posters, films, cartoons, and fliers were seen throughout Germany which attacked the Jewish community.
5Persecution Definition: Subjecting of a race or group of people to cruel or unfair treatmentOn Jan 30, 1939 Hitler declared that a new world war would lead to the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe.At first the destruction took place occasionally but eventually became methodical.The persecution was carried out in stages.First Jews were removed from civil society using the Nuremberg Laws.Concentration camps were established where inmates were used as slave labor.As new territory was conquered, treatment became more harsh. Many Jews were murdered in mass shootings, confined in overcrowded ghettos, and transported to death-camps where they were buried in mass graves or burned.
6Nuremberg LawsFrom 1933, when the Nazis came to power, Jews of Germany were subjected to discriminatory laws.Over Hitler’s Reich of twelve years, there were over 400 restrictions against Jews .In 1935 Jews were faced with new laws:Forbidding intermarriage between Jews and GermansDefining who is a full German based on bloodlinesDefining who is a “full” Jew based on bloodlinesThe end result: The more “full-blooded” a Jew was, the greater the level of discrimination.
7SS Police StateThe Schutzstaffel, or SS began as a special body guard for Adolf Hitler and other party leaders.In 1934, they became the private army of the Nazi party.Heinrich Himmler was the directer of this force.They were used as policemen and concentration camp guards.They went from door to door looking for enemies of Hitler. Anyone who spoke out against the Nazi party was arrested, and some were killed.
8GestapoIt was their job to round up all Jews and other “undesirables” and send them to concentration camps of put them to death.In Nazi Germany the police were allowed to arrest people on suspicion they were about to do wrong.Those arrested had three minutes to pack and say goodbye.There were no restrictions on The Gestapo; they could not be tried for their police actions.Secret State Police was formally organized after the Nazis seized power in 1933.In 1936, Himmler was given command of the Gestapo as well as the SS. They were also joined with the Kriminalpolizei.Due to all of the changes, the functions of each branch overlapped.During WWII the Einsatzgrupen (Task Force) was formed.
9Concentration Camps Definition A camp in which people are detained or confined, usually under harsh conditionsThe first camps were established soon after Hitler’s appointment to chancellor in 1933.In 1934, Hitler authorized Himmler to centralize the concentration camps into a formal systemIn 1938, authority to incarcerate persons in a concentration camp was given only to the German Security Police.Those imprisoned includedPersons considered a political dangerHabitual and professional criminalsAnyone with “asocial” behaviorIn 1939, new territory and large groups of prisoners led to rapid growth of the concentration camp systemThese camps increasingly became sites were people were murdered.
10GhettosThe term originated in the Jewish quarter of Venice, in 1516, where Jews were forced to live.During WWII, ghettos were city districts where the Jewish population was forced to live under miserable conditions.At first Ghettos were a temporary solution to segregate Jews.Some lasted a few days while others months or years.Eventually ghettos were destroyed as the “Final Solution” was implemented and the plan to murder all European Jews was carried out.
11Killing centersIn 1941 Nazi leadership to implement the “Final Solution”.German authorities used rail systems to transport Jews to eastern Europe.The original perception of these deportation was a “resettlement” of the Jewish populationOn the contrary, it was a transport to a killing center and the end result was mass murder.Many died during transport due to lack of food and water, intense heat, freezing temperature, and unclean conditions.Those who survived learned their fate soon after arrival.