Presentation on theme: "By: chris kazun. Not only from outside the faith Islam and the crusades Threats perceived as coming from within the faith itself Christianity."— Presentation transcript:
Not only from outside the faith Islam and the crusades Threats perceived as coming from within the faith itself Christianity seen as a stabilizing force in society Any threats became dealt with severely
Reaction to Albigensian/Cathar “heresy” Mix of Gnosticism and Manichaeism Two Gods Spiritual – good Physical – evil All things in physical world are evil and dangerous Jesus only appeared to have a human body Rejected mass, church buildings, sacraments, marriage, sex, allowed homosexuality and suicide Men and women were equal Did not recognize secular authority
Tolerated or ignored for over 50 years Pope Innocent III followed a traditional policy: “Heretics are to be overcome by reasoning, not by force.” Changed when papal legate was killed by a Cathar/Albigensian follower Innocent III called for military crusade – Albigensian Crusade Thousands of Cathars were killed (burning at stake was popular), lands were seized Lasted 20 years; unable to wipe out Cathars Survived underground, like early Christians Secular rulers became increasingly involved
Begun by Pope Gregory IX (in 1231) Keep secular rulers from usurping Church’s authority The Inquisition was meant to detect and purge heresy
Instituted special judges (representatives of pope) – inquisitors Functioned independent from civil authorities Worked in civil system Had papal authority Examined and judged religious opinions and moral conduct of suspicious people
Dominicans and Franciscans Chosen because: Less likely to be swayed by worldly motives Less likely to be pressured by secular authorities Well educated in theological and spiritual knowledge
The Church looked for men who: possessed qualities of a good judge Were determined to protect and promote faith Desire salvation of souls and ending heresy Never yield to anger or passion Meet hostility fearlessly, but not encourage it Not yield to threats, but not be heartless Would be merciful in giving penalties Would listen to counsel of others, not trust his own opinion to greatly
Begins with month long “term of grace” Chance for people of area to confess sins to inquisitor Those confessing of own free will received suitable penance (pilgrimage, fasting, paying a fine, being flogged) inhabitants then invited to accuse anyone suspected of being a heretic Could there be issues with this system?
Trial before inquisitor Swore their innocence on the 4 Gospels Person had chance to prove their innocence (not the case in civil trials) Names of accusers and witnesses were kept secret
Fear of punishment more lenient sentence for confession and those who recanted close confinement (with possible curtailment of food) visits of tried men (tried to get confession through friendly persuasion) Torture. Very last resort Okayed by Pope Innocent IV Remained controversial
Punishments were largely humane for those who confessed and recanted Refusing to recant = severe punishment (life imprisonment or burning at the stake) Few people were actually executed Sentence was public, as was execution From 1249-57, of 306 recorded penalties, only 21 were burnings
Begun by Ferdinand and Isabella used by state to promote Spanish unity under Catholicism Began as a papal inquisition By 1480, Spanish authorities had taken over Papal sanction, but functioned independently of papacy Main targets were Jews and Muslims
Lawyers defended accused If accusations were proven Those admitting to accusations offered public reconciliation Those denying proven accusations were tortured Those who refused to recant were burned at the stake False accusers and false witnesses were severely punished or executed
methods used definitely violate human rights Must be careful about placing our values on medieval society remember heresy was seen as a serious threat Truly believed they were protecting the church While we see punishments and torture as harsh, these were normal in this society Civil authorities were more harsh in most cases dealing with heresy
How do people in your society and or your school tend to treat people who have “unorthodox” views (religious, social, or other kinds of views)? Relate this to the mindset during the inquisition?