Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Central Asia & the Caucusus. Landforms Physical Geography.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Central Asia & the Caucusus. Landforms Physical Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Central Asia & the Caucusus

2 Landforms

3 Physical Geography

4 Mountains  The Caucusus Mountains lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea  They separate Russia from Central Asia

5 Water Features  Aral Sea  Caspian Sea

6 Natural Resources  Turkmenistan has the world’s largest supplies of sulfur and sulfates  Sulfate is used in glass, paperboard, and detergent  The region is also known for chromium, gold, lead, manganese, and zinc

7 Climate  Desert & Steppe  Deserts:  about 10 inches of rainfall per year  Cold winters with freezing temperatures  Nomadic animals graze on brush  Steppe:  Borders deserts  Less than 14 inches of rain per year  Allows short grasses to grow  Pastoralism : the raising and grazing of livestock

8 The People of Central Asia Predominant Ethnic Groups and Traditional Garb

9 Pashtun (Afghanistan)

10 Armenian & Georgian (Caucasus)

11 Uzbeks & Kazakhs (Turkic Peoples Outside of Turkey)

12 Population Density  Most populous country in region: Afghanistan  Population displaced by conflict  Armenian Genocide  Mass emigration after takeover by Soviet Union produced harsh conditions  Kyrgyzstan

13 Population Distribution  Population is spread unevenly  Why might that be?  Tajikistan: people settle in river valleys  Amu Dar’ya  Syr Dar’ya

14 History & Gov’t  Crossroads of European and Asian cultures  Silk Road  led to prosperity for certain areas  Also inspired invasions by the Mongols, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, and Ottoman Turks

15 Crossroads of Culture  Armenia is surrounded by countries whose inhabitants identify as Muslim, but over 90% of Armenians practice Christianity  Azerbaijan is surrounded by Christian countries in the Caucasus, but maintains an Islamic culture  Armenia is classified as an enclave: a territory that is culturally or ethnically different from surrounding larger cultures  Azerbaijan is considered an exclave: a distinct group of people who are isolated from the main/larger part of the country

16 Central Asia and the USSR  Harsh conditions led to people fleeing the region during the Soviet Era  After the fall of the USSR, many countries declared independence  Armenia has some economic stability and reform  Tajikistan was chaotic without central authority  Most of Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban  Poverty and unemployment widespread  Armenia, Georgia, & Kazakhstan hope that oil and gas will stabilize the economy

17 Language  Turkic languages are the most common  Georgia is the only country in the region with a wholly unique language and alphabet  Russian is still the official language of Kazakhstan and widely spoken in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Georgian Alphabet and Pronunciation Chart

18 Religion  Islam is most popular  Most countries follow the Sunni branch  Azerbaijan follows the Shia branch  Christianity is the major religion in Armenia and Georgia  90% of Armenians follow the Armenian Apostolic Church (300s AD)  Georgia uses follows the Georgian Orthodox Church

19 Life  Universal education  Mandatory through secondary schools for many countries  Literacy roughly 88% for most countries (Tajikistan)  Afghanistan & Uzbekistan lagging  Armenia & Georgia near 99%  Healthcare poor since dissolution of USSR  Little money to spend on social programs after years of conflict  Region known for literary tradition  Suppressed during Soviet Era

20 Economy and Human Impact

21 Economy  Azerbaijan has the most arable land in the region (21%)  Turkmenistan has the least arable land (5%)  In Afghanistan, 67% of people depend on farming but only 12% of the land is arable  Climate plays a role  Georgia is known for citrus fruits (humid subtropical climate)  Uzbekistan is one of the world’s largest cotton producers  Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan raise silkworms  Azerbaijan exports wheat, cotton, potatoes, and tea  Kazakhstan produces large amounts of grain  Oil pipelines from Azerbaijan to Georgia

22 Transportation  Much of the region is reliant upon roads instead of waterways or ports  Mountains and deserts make building roads difficult and expensive  (Fairly) Recent development: 1998 Tajikistan unveils railroad system  Some Central Asian countries have their own airlines

23 Communications  Desert makes communications difficult  Satellites are improving communications services  Cell phone usage is growing  1998 – 16,767 mile telecommunications cable follows Silk Road route  Plans to create Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA)  Hope to promote peace and regional cooperation, increase access to worldwide markets, improve routes to landlocked countries, and access oil and gas deposits in Caspian region

24 The End

25 Mini Poster  Computer paper & colored pencils  Draw and label the most important aspects for  Physical  Cultural  Human impact  When you are done, explain your drawings in small groups and turn in

Download ppt "Central Asia & the Caucusus. Landforms Physical Geography."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google