Presentation on theme: "PEOPLES OF NORTH AMERICA &AFRICANS ARRIVE IN THE CHESAPEAKE 3.1-3.2."— Presentation transcript:
PEOPLES OF NORTH AMERICA &AFRICANS ARRIVE IN THE CHESAPEAKE
Attendance Bell ringer activity Collect 3.1 Guide to reading and key terms Guided notes Assignment 3.2 pgs and complete guide to reading and key terms on page 75
Bellringer 1)The indigenous people of North America are known as____________________ 2) Europeans called the natives “Indians” as a result of Christopher Columbus’s mistaken assumption that he had landed on islands near this Continent?_______________ 3) This was the first permanent English settlement? 4) In the Chesapeake Bay Colonies, this agricultural product was very labor intensive? 5) Why did the English not follow the Spanish example of enslaving the Indians?
Peoples of North America African immigrants gave birth to a new African- American people. Forever separated from their homeland, many were able to preserve a large part of their African cultural heritage. American Indians/Native Americans were the original inhabitants of North America (indigenous). Europeans called them Indians as a result of Christopher Columbus’s mistaken assumption that he had landed near the “Indies” (Southeast Asia)
Map of Native Tribes
Loss of life In the first 100 years of contact, the Powhatan, Nanticoke, and Piscataway suffered severe loss of life. Although it is difficult to obtain precise population figures, scholars estimate that the Powhatan chiefdom included about 12,000 people when Jamestown was settled in 1607.Only 1,000 were left by The Piscataway chiefdom had about 8,500 members at the time of English settlement, but only 300 remained by 1700
Disease Epidemic diseases were the primary cause of death. Native peoples had no immunity to new illnesses, including smallpox, cholera, and measles, which the Europeans brought to the Americas. Many tribes suffered huge losses — often, up to ninety percent of the population was wiped out. Made it easy to move in on Native land and take it.
Relationships between black people and Indians during colonial times were complex. Sometimes, Indian nations provided refuge to escaping black slaves, Indians sometimes became slaveholders themselves. But often times, both African-Americans and Indians found themselves similarly oppressed by the white Europeans.
British and Jamestown England’s claim to the North America came from John Cabot, who sailed in 1497 and claimed the East Coast of North America for the British. Slow to settle –not until 1607 would England create its first permanent settlement-Jamestown. Jamestown almost did not survive-until crops such as tobacco began to be produced in large numbers. Tobacco farming was very labor intensive. The English could not enslave the Indians and the Spanish had-disease had wiped out most of the local Indians.
Mixed Race Families Up until about 1700, white labor produced most of the tobacco in the Chesapeake colonies. Edward Mozingo who was brought to the Jamestown colony as a slave from Angola in 1644 and won his freedom twenty-eight years later. He became a tenant farmer growing tobacco by a creek called Pantico Run, married a white woman, and fathered one of the country’s earliest mixed-race family lineages. Many in the
Africans in Jamestown Jamestown Virginia was the first British settlement in N. America The English hoped to make a profit by mining gold or growing silk and rice, none of which worked The climate was not right for those crops and their were no gold deposits However, tobacco cultivation caught on and was in great demand in England
Africans in Jamestown The English did not follow the Spanish model of enslaving the Native Americans and then turning to Africa for slaves at first Black people represented a very small portion of the initial labor force. They were considered unfree, but not slaves At first, white indentured servants made up the majority of the workforce
Indentured servitude was harsh in the tobacco colonies, because masters sought to get as much labor as possible before the period of servitude ended Both blacks and whites were indentured servants and worked and lived together Eventually, slave labor did replace indentured servitude as the main source of labor
Origins of Black Slavery Eventually, slave labor did replace indentured servitude as the main source of labor Between 1640 and 1700 a dramatic change occurred in the English tobacco colonies, which shifted the work toward African slaves
Origins of Black Slavery The British were already using slaves in their sugar plantations in the Caribbean which set the precedent for them to use slavery elsewhere The British came to dominate the Atlantic Slave trade which made slaves cheaper for them Also, many of the early white indentured servants had paid of their debt or found better opportunities elsewhere in N. America
The Emergence of Chattel Slavery By the 1660’s the harsh form of slavery known as chattel slavery found it’s way to the colonies Laws in these colonies refer to slavery as the natural condition for Africans Laws changed to make sure that children of enslaved women remained in servitude, allowing slave owners to exploit their female servants without having to acknowledge any children they might bare.
Bacon’s Rebellion and American Slavery Nathaniel Bacon rebelled against the government in Virginia and had the support of the indentured servants He sought support from both black and white laborers which worried the colony’s leaders This uprising convinced them that continuing to rely on white agricultural laborers who would become free and get guns was dangerous. They switched to slave laborers who would not become free and never have access to weapons.
Assignment 1. What was the original goal of the Jamestown colony? How did this change? 2. How did the role of African labor change in the Virginia Colony? 3. What led to the change in the labor force in the tobacco colonies? 4. What laws changed under chattel slavery in the colonies? 5. How did Bacon’s Rebellion help lead to more support for slavery?