2Where on Earth do organisms live? The part of the earth that can support living things is called the biosphere.The biosphere is composed of many different environments including:1. deserts2. oceans3. fields4. beaches5. backyards, sidewalks and streets
3Interactions in the Biosphere Each organism in the biosphere interacts with other organisms and the environment.These organisms produce a web of interactions.Humans are an important part of the web of interactions.The web is constantly changing.A small change in one part of the web can produce a large change in another part.
4Variety Among Living Things Organisms have many different body plans and structuresAll organisms are alike in certain ways and different in other ways.These differences allow for organisms to live in almost every place on earth.Differences also enable each kind of organism to survive in its particular environment.
5AdaptationsA characteristic that enables an organism to live and reproduce in its environment is called an adaptation.-Spines on a cactus-Hard shell on snails-Fish have mouths designed for specific types of food-Blue tongued skink-Quills on a porcupine
6SpeciesA group of very similar organisms whose members can mate with one another and produce offspring that are able to produce offspring is called a species.Each species has a two part scientific name. example:- coccinella movemnotata (scientific name)-red spotted ladybug beetle (common name)Individuals in the same species don’t often look exactly alike
7Similarities and Differences in Species Individuals of the same species have similar body plans and structures.Individuals of the same species can be different in size, color and shape.99% of all species that have ever lived on Earth no longer exist. Many of these organisms have left no fossil record so that scientists cannot identify them.
8How do scientists group organisms How do scientists group organisms? Scientist sort organisms into groups with similar characteristics.King Phillip Came Over For Great SpaghettiKingdom -PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
9Classification Systems Organisms are grouped by similaritiesUniform way for scientists throughout the world to refer to organisms.This system of classification was developed by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1700’s.The classification system used by scientists today consists of 6 kingdoms.
106 KingdomsArchaebacteria – single celled organisms with no nucleus – can grow in harsh environmentsEubacteria – single celled organisms with no nucleus – some can cause disease others are helpfulProtists – many are food for other larger organismsFungi – many celled organisms that grow in moist dark placesPlants - multi-cellular organisms that produce their own foodAnimals – multi-cellular organisms that must find its food
11Bacteria &Protists All bacteria are single celled organisms All Bacteria have No Nucleus! (both plant and animal cells contain a nucleus)Archaebacteria – bacteria that can live in harsh environmentsEubacteria – all other bacteriaProtists – mostly single celled. All the cells have a nucleus, ameba and algae are examples.
12Fungi Many celled organisms Grow in moist, dark places Mushrooms and molds have cells that are connected by threadlike strands called hyphae.The hyphae take in nutrients for the organisms from other organisms.Yeast is another type of fungus that are not connected by hyphae.Fungi are not plants because they cannot make their own food!
13PlantsMost living things gain energy either directly or indirectly from plants.Plants also help to stabilize the Earth’s climate.All plants have cell walls and a nucleus.All plants can be divided into two groups:Vascular – have cells that form tubes that carry water and nutrients throughout the plant.Nonvascular – do not have tubes to carry materials. Materials pass through cell walls.
14Animals All animals are multicellular. Get their food by eating other organisms.Animal cells contain a nucleus but no cell wall.All animals can be divided into two groups:Vertebrates – animals that have a backbone.Invertebrate – animals without a backboneAbout 95% of the all animal species on Earth are invertebrates.
15Animal Phyla Cnidarians – Corals, jellyfish, sea anemones Mollusks – clams, squids, snails, and slugsSegmented Worms – earthworm, leechesArthropods – spiders, crabs, and insects (All insects are arthropods but not all arthropods are insects)Echinoderms – sea stars, sea urchins, sea liliesChordates – VERTEBRATES! Spinal cord & brain