2Homestead Act 1862The first of these acts was signed into effect by Abraham LincolnAnyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government could applyGranted adult heads of families 160 acres of surveyed public land for a minimal filing feeRequired to “improve” the plot by building a dwelling and cultivating the landAfter 5 years on the land the original filer was entitled to the property, free and clearThis accelerated the settlement of the western territory
3Abraham LincolnPresident Lincoln was concerned that the Emancipation Proclamation would be seen as a temporary war measureHe wanted to offer southerners amnesty for all illegal acts supporting the rebellion
41865 cartoon showing Lincoln and Johnson using their talents as rail-splitter and tailor to repair the Union
5Freedmen’s BureauEstablished in the War Department, originally by Abraham Lincoln to help freed slaves after the war.Supervised all relief and education activities relating to refugees and freedmenIssued rations, clothing and medicineAssumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate states, border states, District of Columbia and Indian TerritoryThe Bureau encouraged former plantation owners to rebuild their plantationsUrged African Americans to gain employmentPushed both whites and blacks to work together as employers and employees rather than as masters and as slaves
6Freedmen’s BureauMain focus: (for black and white people in the South)Provide foodMedical CareHelp with resettlementAdminister justiceManage abandoned and confiscated propertyRegulate laborEstablish schools – educational opportunities for newly-freed slaves
813th Amendment Outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude Abolished slavery without compensation to ownersFirst of three reconstruction amendments adopted after the Civil WarAll enslaved people were freed as a result
913th AmendmentPresident Lincoln had first proposed compensated emancipation as an amendment in December 1862His Emancipation Proclamation declared slaves free in the Confederate states in rebellion but did not extend to border-states.After Lincoln’s assassination, President Andrew Johnson declared his own plan for Reconstruction which included the need for Confederate states to approve the 13th Amendment.
11Andrew Johnson 17th President 1865-1869 Democrat He wanted to carry out Lincoln’s plan of leniency toward the South.He believed Reconstruction should not be cruel and harsh.
12Problems in the SouthOver 1,000 schools were built and some services provided, but most people did not get what they were promisedPeople took advantage of the rebuilding of the SouthScalawags – Southern Whites who supported the Reconstruction – Seen as traitorsCarpetbaggers – Northerners who moved to the South to take advantage of the plight, political and economic
13Freed SlavesSome were able to take advantage of the opportunities given to them by the governmentMost organizations created to help freed slaves were underfundedMost freed slaves ended up working on plantation or sharecropping, much like they had beforeSharecropping – People were provided housing, tools and seed. When harvest time came, they were given a share of the crop. Many people used this method, not just freedmen.
14Civil Rights Act of 1866Granted citizenship to persons born in the U.S. except Native AmericansThis extended citizenship to blacks.President Johnson opposed and vetoed the legislation but Congress overruled his veto and then proposed the 14th Amendment
1514th AmendmentAll persons born in the U.S. (except Native Americans) were citizens and all citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race (Newly-freed slaves became citizens)Their rights were protected under lawThis amendment did not extend the right to vote to black men but it encouraged states to allow them to vote by limiting the Congressional representation of any state that did not extend the right.This disappointed women’s rights advocates because it defined the right to vote as a male right
16Trouble in the SouthSoutherners were finding ways to circumvent federal laws that were designed to protect freed slavesFreed slaves were guaranteed rights but had to follow laws passed by the states that they lived in. These laws greatly limited their opportunities.
17Trouble in the South Black Codes: 1866 Laws passed in the South to limit the opportunities for blacks.Reflected the unwillingness of southern whites to accept blacks as equalsJim Crow Laws:Laws passed to bypass laws created by the Radical Republicans and any other federal law that Southerners did not agree with concerning African-Americans“Separate but equal”
18Trouble in the South Ku Klux Klan: Created by those who did not agree with the opportunities given to freed slavesSecret society that gained support in 1868Sought to destroy the Republican Party in the SouthUsed harsh intimidation tactics on African-Americans and other groups that helped African-AmericansThey terrorized any who tried to help African-Americans
19Alaska Purchase The first Russian settlement was in the 17th century The Russians never fully colonized Alaska and it wasn’t very profitableWilliam H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State, negotiated the Alaska Purchase (also known as Seward's Folly) with the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million(It became a state in 1959)
20Radical RepublicansReconstruction of the South was led by Radical Republicans that favored harsh treatment of the SouthQuick incorporation of the freedmen into citizenship with full privileges including voting rights and the push for seizure of land from plantersStates were organized into military districtsThey wanted to restrict the actions of Southern congressional leaders in the national government
21Reconstruction Act of 1867Military occupation of the former confederate statesStrict guidelines on representation and requirements for readmission to the UnionRequired that all seceded states ratify the 14th Amendment as a condition of their readmission to the Union and grant voting rights to black menEach state would have to draft a new constitution which would have to be approved by CongressCongress eventually sought to safeguard the vote for black men by proposing the 15th Amendment
23Andrew JohnsonThe amount of vetoes applied throughout his career as president and the differences in view from Congress made him a target for impeachmentPresident Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives on February 24, 1868The Senate tried the case in a trial that lasted from March to May 1868.In the end, the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson by a margin of 35 guilty to 19 not guilty - one vote short of the two-thirds needed to convict.
24Ulysses S. Grant 18th President 1869-1877 Republican Was a war hero to many NorthernersSupported ReconstructionRan under the slogan, “Let us have peace.”
2515th Amendment Granted black men the right to vote in all states Many black men were not allowed to vote in Northern statesWomen’s rights activists opposed the amendment because it continued to deny the vote based on genderFifty more years would pass before the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
26Hiram Revels Rhodes First African-American Senator Mississippi state legislature chose Revels to fill a seat in the Senate that had been vacant since the start of the Civil WarHe served briefly, but established a precedent by just taking his seat against objection by white SouthernersWon notice for speaking out against racial segregationAfter him, 22 African American men were elected before the turn of the century
27Compromise of 1877After the election of 1877 Congress formed the Electoral Commission to resolve disputed Democratic Electoral votes from the SouthIt was an unwritten and informal compromise between the Republicans and DemocratsIncluded measures to appease the South – removal of all federal troopsAppointed at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes’s administrationConstruction of a second Transcontinental Railroad in the SouthLegislation enacted to help industrialize the South
28Compromise of 1877 Known as the “Great Betrayal” Settled the disputed election of 1876Rutherford B. Hayes became president in exchange for federal troops removed from the SouthEnded Reconstruction in the SouthA political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as a character (the devil) while Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with the prize of the “Solid South” depicted as a woman.
30Morrill Act 1862 & 1890This act made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizensThe new land-grant institutions which emphasized agriculture and mechanic arts opened opportunities to thousands of farmers and working people previously excluded from higher educationThe Morrill Act of 1890 established sixteen higher education facilities dedicated to African AmericansMany states built their first public colleges
31Morrill Act Major universities were charted as land-grant schools When Texas rejoined the Union after the Civil War the state legislature authorized the first Texas Public CollegeState colleges brought higher education within the reach of millions of students
32Dawes ActAllowed the president to break up reservation land into small allotments for individualsAmerican Indians registered on a tribal “roll” were granted allotments of landThis act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land “excess” to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non-Indians
33Dawes ActSupposed to protect Indian property rights, particularly during the land rushes of the 1890sThe land allotted to the Indians included desert or near-desert lands unsuitable for farmingTechniques of self-sufficient farming were much different from their tribal way of lifeMany Indians did not want to take up agriculture, those who did, could not afford the tools, animals, seeds, and other supplies necessary to get startedIt forced ownership of Indian lands among individual members, leading to a significant disruption of their way of life
34A Scar left on our Nation After Reconstruction was over, Democrats ruled the South for over 100 yearsFor over 100 years there was a clear division between North and South