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The Exodus. Exodus 1: Slavery The “Hyksos” ruled Egypt from ca. 1700-1550 Foreign people who entered Egypt ca. 1800 Expelled by the Egyptian Ahmose Egypt’s.

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Presentation on theme: "The Exodus. Exodus 1: Slavery The “Hyksos” ruled Egypt from ca. 1700-1550 Foreign people who entered Egypt ca. 1800 Expelled by the Egyptian Ahmose Egypt’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Exodus

2 Exodus 1: Slavery The “Hyksos” ruled Egypt from ca Foreign people who entered Egypt ca Expelled by the Egyptian Ahmose Egypt’s New Kingdom = ca – 1000 The most prosperous time in Egypt’s history

3 Luxor Temple

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7 Karnak Temple

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9 Exodus 1: Slavery The “Hyksos” ruled Egypt from ca Foreign people who entered Egypt ca Expelled by the Egyptian Ahmose Egypt’s New Kingdom = ca – 1000 The most prosperous time in Egypt’s history Moses born ca “After the Hyksos…the Egyptians realized that foreigners in large numbers could not be trusted and needed to be controlled” (Hoerth, 158). Hence the concern (Exod 1:9-10) and oppression (Exod 1) Pharaoh Ahmose = the pharaoh who “knew not Joseph” (Exod 1:8)

10 Exodus 2-11: The Exodus Thutmose III ( ) Pharaoh of the oppression (Exod 2:23) or Pharaoh of the exodus?

11 Thutmose III

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15 Exodus 2-11: The Exodus Thutmose III ( ) Moses kills an Egyptian and flees Egypt Thutmose try to kill Moses (Exod 2:25) and intensified the oppression (Exod. 2:23) Great warrior; ethnocentric; prideful Thutmose III dies – Exod 2:23

16 Thutmose III

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18 Exodus 2-11: The Exodus Amenhotep II Pharaoh of the exodus? Best option…

19 Amenhotep II

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21 Exodus 2-11: The Exodus Amenhotep II Egypt’s version of Samson Valiant sportsman; many stories about his strength and pride No one could draw his bow Best archer in Egypt The best horse trainer Could row a boat with 200 soldiers by himself “Who is the LORD that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I do no know the LORD and besides, I will not let Israel go” (Exod. 5:2)

22 Route of the Exodus

23 Mt. Sinai

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25 The Date of the Exodus a B.C. (early date) b. 1200’s B.C. (late date) Arguments for early date 1. 1 Kings 6:1 says that Solomon built the temple in the 4 th year of his reign (966 B.C.), “480 years after the sons of Israel came out of the land of Egypt” 2. Judges 11:26 says that Jephthah’s day (1100 B.C.) was about 300 years after the exodus  1 Kings 6:1 AND Judges 11:26 BOTH place the exodus around 1400 B.C.

26 The Date of the Exodus Archaeological/Historical Support for Early Date (1446) Amenhotep II (pharaoh of exodus) replaced not by his older son, but unexpectedly by Thutmose IV, his younger son. “Thutmose IV obtained the throne through an unforeseen turn of fate, such as the premature death of an elder brother” (Hayes, a secular Egyptologist)

27 The Date of the Exodus Archaeological/Historical Support for Early Date (1446) During the Conquest, Amenhotep III ( ) was pharaoh. Then, Amenhotep IV Historically: Both were unconcerned with Palestine Biblically: Egypt never comes to the aid of Canaanite city-states

28 The Date of the Exodus Archaeological/Historical Support for Early Date (1446) Amarna Letters

29 The Date of the Exodus Archaeological/Historical Support for Early Date (1446) Amarna Letters 400 cuneiform letters = correspondence between Canaanites kings and Egypt Date = 1300’s Some sort of turmoil in Canaan cause by invading “Hapiru” or “Apiru” “Hapiru” = Hebrews ? “Hapiru” = general term for foreign enemy invaders

30 The Date of the Exodus Arguments for Late Date? (1200’s) Archaeological record Kathleen Kenyon’s date of Jericho Destroyed in 1500’s. No city in 1406 Nelson Glueck’s survey of wilderness No one was there from 1800’s-1300’s Israel built “Pithom and Ramses” (Exod 1:11)

31 Old Testament Law The laws in Exod-Deut seem weird. Other ANE law-codes show that the OT Law was right at home in the ancient world Esp. Code of Hammurabi 1772 B.C. Hammurabi king of Babylon List of 282 law codes

32 Code of Hammurabi

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35 Significance? Similarities with Law of Moses shows continuity with ANE culture 196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken. "If anyone injures his neighbor, whatever he has done must be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. As he has injured the other, so he is to be injured." Leviticus 24:19-20

36 Code of Hammurabi Significance? Dissimilarities with Law of Moses: Social hierarchy 198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.mina 199. If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out If he knock out the teeth of a freed man (i.e. former slave), he shall pay one-third of a gold mina. “There is little class distinction in the Old Testament law. Although punishment could be harsh, it was equally harsh for all” (Hoerth, 171)

37 Code of Hammurabi Significance? Dissimilarities with Law of Moses: Intentionality Only the OT Law distinguishes between intentional crimes and accidental crimes i.e. killing someone on purpose and on accident

38 Code of Hammurabi Significance? Dissimilarities with Law of Moses: God-centeredness Hammurabi’s law code was given “so people could get along with one another. In the Bible the law code was given primarily so people could get along with God” (Hoerth, 171)


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