2Figurative Language Terms: comparisons Metaphor – comparison of two essentially different things as if they are identical.The snow was a white blanket over the groundSimile – comparison of two essentially different things using a word of comparison.The people reacted like pigeons going after bread crumb to the bargains on the counter.Personification – a figure of speech in which an object or animal is spoken of as if it had human feelings, thoughts, or actions.The clerk’s feather duster danced across the display.
3Figures of Speech: Sound Devices Alliteration – the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.The crowd pressed closely together in the cramped corridor.Onomatopoeia – using of words whose sounds suggest their meanings.Crash, boom, buzz, whisper, howl, gurgleRhyme Scheme – the pattern of ending sounds in lines (rhyming).To show rhyme scheme, use a different letter to label each line that ends with a new soundRhythm – the musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables or by the repetition of certain other sound patterns.Jack and Jill went up the hillTo fetch a pail of water
4Literary Terms IIdiom – an expression that means something different from the literal meaning of the words.It’s raining cats and dogs.Analogy – a literal comparison made between two things to show how they are alike.His father was very much like his grandfather.Imagery – use of language that appeals to the senses.The ruby red slippers of Dorothy Gale in Oz.
5Literary Terms II Hyperbole – an extreme exaggeration. When I was young I had to walk to school ten miles uphill each way.Irony – a contrast between expectation and realityNarrative voice – the speaker of the poem, not to be confused with the poet.Colloquial Language – the use of vocabulary that is part of everyday speech, often including slang
7Poetry is like musicReading just the lyrics is not enough. We need the sound as well.Good poems create their own music.Samuel Taylor Coleridge – “the best words in their best order.”How did he do this?In Zanadu did Kubla KhanA stately pleasure-dome decree;Where Alph, the sacred river, ranThrough caverns measureless to manDown to a sunless sea.
8Poetry Terms IRepetition – the use of the same word or words more than once in a line or group of lines.Refer to “Artist to Artist” by Davida AdedjoumaFree Verse – a poem written without a set pattern of rhyme, meter, or line length. Poets use words and images to help make free verse feel different from regular sentences or prose.Stanza –a group of lines in a poem. Usually, the lines in a stanza are related to each other in the same way the sentences of a paragraph go together.
9Poetry Terms II Sound Effects rhythm (or beat) – the patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllablesrhyme – the repetition of accented vowel soundsusually at the ends of wordsalliteration – the repetition of initial consonant sounds in words close togetherconsonance -- the repetition of consonant sounds within words.assonance – the repetition of vowel sounds within wordsonomatopoeia – use of words whose sounds suggest their meaningscacophony -- use of harsh, unpleasant soundseuphony – use of pleasing sounds