2 Figurative Language Terms: comparisons Metaphor – comparison of two essentially different things as if they are identical.The snow was a white blanket over the groundSimile – comparison of two essentially different things using a word of comparison.The people reacted like pigeons going after bread crumb to the bargains on the counter.Personification – a figure of speech in which an object or animal is spoken of as if it had human feelings, thoughts, or actions.The clerk’s feather duster danced across the display.
3 Figures of Speech: Sound Devices Alliteration – the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.The crowd pressed closely together in the cramped corridor.Onomatopoeia – using of words whose sounds suggest their meanings.Crash, boom, buzz, whisper, howl, gurgleRhyme Scheme – the pattern of ending sounds in lines (rhyming).To show rhyme scheme, use a different letter to label each line that ends with a new soundRhythm – the musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables or by the repetition of certain other sound patterns.Jack and Jill went up the hillTo fetch a pail of water
4 Literary Terms IIdiom – an expression that means something different from the literal meaning of the words.It’s raining cats and dogs.Analogy – a literal comparison made between two things to show how they are alike.His father was very much like his grandfather.Imagery – use of language that appeals to the senses.The ruby red slippers of Dorothy Gale in Oz.
5 Literary Terms II Hyperbole – an extreme exaggeration. When I was young I had to walk to school ten miles uphill each way.Irony – a contrast between expectation and realityNarrative voice – the speaker of the poem, not to be confused with the poet.Colloquial Language – the use of vocabulary that is part of everyday speech, often including slang
7 Poetry is like musicReading just the lyrics is not enough. We need the sound as well.Good poems create their own music.Samuel Taylor Coleridge – “the best words in their best order.”How did he do this?In Zanadu did Kubla KhanA stately pleasure-dome decree;Where Alph, the sacred river, ranThrough caverns measureless to manDown to a sunless sea.
8 Poetry Terms IRepetition – the use of the same word or words more than once in a line or group of lines.Refer to “Artist to Artist” by Davida AdedjoumaFree Verse – a poem written without a set pattern of rhyme, meter, or line length. Poets use words and images to help make free verse feel different from regular sentences or prose.Stanza –a group of lines in a poem. Usually, the lines in a stanza are related to each other in the same way the sentences of a paragraph go together.
9 Poetry Terms II Sound Effects rhythm (or beat) – the patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllablesrhyme – the repetition of accented vowel soundsusually at the ends of wordsalliteration – the repetition of initial consonant sounds in words close togetherconsonance -- the repetition of consonant sounds within words.assonance – the repetition of vowel sounds within wordsonomatopoeia – use of words whose sounds suggest their meaningscacophony -- use of harsh, unpleasant soundseuphony – use of pleasing sounds
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