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ASIC and Sensor R&D Electronics and sensor technology is central to Particle Physics research Technology is moving very quickly – sensor arrays of unprecedented.

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Presentation on theme: "ASIC and Sensor R&D Electronics and sensor technology is central to Particle Physics research Technology is moving very quickly – sensor arrays of unprecedented."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASIC and Sensor R&D Electronics and sensor technology is central to Particle Physics research Technology is moving very quickly – sensor arrays of unprecedented size and capabilities are possible CMS tracker DES focal plane CDMS sensor arrays … Electronics with extremely high density and speed can be contemplated There are many HEP opportunities, we need to take care to use resources wisely

2 ASIC/Sensor Projects and Technologies Lepton Collider Vertex X-Ray Imaging CMS Track Trigger LHC fast tracker Digital SIPM Projects 3D Electronics Silicon-on-insulator Device processing (with partners) Technologies We have focused on a few technologies which can have significant impact on HEP

3 Future Challenges Lepton Collider Vertex Detector - precision Superb impact parameter resolution ( 5µm  10µm/(p sin 3/2  ) ) Transparency ( ~0.1% X0 per layer ) Muon Collider – processing to deal with harsh background environments 1-3 TeV muon collider on FNAL site Substantial Huge detector and radiation backgrounds Fast timing for background rejection CLIC – speed and precision Few ns time resolution SLHC – large scale, high speed, harsh environment int/25 ns crossing, track trigger required Large scale systems On-detector background rejection X-Ray Imaging – speed and density Variety of challenges – timing Intensity frontier Thin, fast electronics Building a toolbox to deal with these challenges

4 ILC Vertex Much of this work started with ILC vertex R&D ILC vertex detectors present a particularly difficult challenge small pixels Mass/layer air cooling, low power Time stamping Then available technologies (CCD, CMOS pixel… ) could not cope Fermilab began to study 3D integration as a way of integrating complex functionality in a small pixel

5 3D 2 or more layers of active semiconductor devices that have been thinned, bonded and interconnected to form a “monolithic” circuit. Industry is moving toward 3D to improve circuit performance. – Reduce R, L, C for higher speed – Reduce chip I/O pads – Provide increased functionality – Reduce interconnect power and crosstalk Provides a set of technologies to thin, bond and interconnect heterogeneous circuits and sensors into a monolithic assembly IBM/Cornell/UCSB Study – vision of 22 nm 10Tflop 3D chip (2018)

6 3D Layer Stacking

7 3D Interconnects (Tezzaron) (Ziptronix) (T-Micro) (RTI) Indium Oxide Cu-Cu Cu-Sn Adhesive (IZM)

8 3D For ILC Our initial 3D work was in collaboration with MIT-LL, aimed at a small pixel for International Linear Collider Oxide bonded tiers of 0.18  m SOI 20 micron pitch pixel, 3 tiers Time stamping and sparse readout 64 x 64 pixels First iteration had a number of processing issues Learned a lot about dealing with a leading edge R&D process Second iteration with more conservative design works well

9 VIP2a Results Digital out (for Inject = 50 mV) Injec t inpu t open Int. reset open Disc. reset, take 1 st sample Integrator out Differential analog out : (Before out) – (After out) Inject = 50 mV Inject = 100 mV Inject = 200 mV Discriminator fires Take 2 nd sample Mux high (read out) Second iteration test chip

10 Commercial 3D Recently we have partnered with Tezzaron Inc. (Naperville Ill) to organize the first commercial 3D multiproject run for HEP. Based on Tezzaron Cu-Cu bonding 0.13 micron CMOS from Chartered/Global Foundries 6 micron imbedded TSVs Face-to-face bonding

11 Multiproject Run Contributions from 17 institutions Separate PMOS and NMOS for MAPS LHC Pixel ILC Pixel X-ray imaging LHC track triggering

12 Commercialization MOSIS/CMP/CMC (silicon brokers in US, France, and Canada) Agreement with Tezzaron for commercialization June Announced plan to offer 3D services using Tezzaron Working with Fermilab to make HEP 3D efforts available to the commercial world Design platform is being developed by Kholdoun Torki at CMP and the first version is now available MOSIS, CMP, and CMC will all receive designs MOSIS will assemble designs into a reticule Tezzaron will handle the final processing of the 3D frame (e.g. adding bond pad interface fill, etc.) and submit design to Chartered.

13 Sensor Integration 3D technologies can also be used to integrate sensors to ICs Pitches as small as 3 microns, thinned to 25 microns Provides for fully active sensors as large as 6” (or 8” wafer) based on tiled ROICs We have also developed a thinning and laser-based annealing process for low leakage sensors as thin as 50  FPIX Chip on FNAL/MIT-LL Sensor

14 FPIX/Sensor Tests BTeV FPIX bonded to MIT-LL sensor Thinned to 100  Noise studies Laser, x-ray, beam tests Good, low cap. bond

15 Bonding process for Tezzaron chips to BNL sensors

16 SOI R&D Silicon on insulator devices with high resistivity detector handle wafers - OKI and American Semiconductor (ASI) Truly integrated sensor/electronics Last run demonstrated integration of SOI electronics with high resistivity substrate on 8” wafers High resistivity Silicon wafer, Thinned to microns Minimal interconnects, low node capacitance not to scale Backside implanted and laser annealed after processing

17 Backgate effects The potential of the substrate can change the fields at the top transistor and affect performance – “backgate” Backgate effects significant in OKI process and limit bias that can be applied Digital-analog coupling can also destroy performance FNAL suggested process changes to OKI to fix this Initial tests show the chips are not significantly affected by back potential This well separates digital circuits from sensor substrate and prevents back gating effects This well collects the charge Patent application under discussion

18 SOI Devices MAMBO x-ray imaging counting pixel chip Maximum counting rate ~ 1 MHz Each pixel: CSA, CR-RC2 shaper, discriminator + 12 bit binary counter 47  m  MAMBO II pixel layout 13 diodes in parallel connection

19 X-Ray Correlation Spectroscopy

20 CMS Track Trigger At SLHC standard trigger menu saturates Track-based triggering needed to explore new physics We are designing a level 1 track trigger for CMS II >150 m 2 of silicon, >900 M channels 40 Mhz crossings, 200 interactions/crossing, 2.75x10 13 bits/second of hit data in the tracker Process this information to make a decision on whether an event is “interesting” Can only record ~1/400 Need to make a decision on the event within 3.2  s

21 Filter out data from low momentum tracks-reduce data by >20 Curvature information in 4T field can be analyzed locally an a 3D chip – minimal data transfer and associated power Stacked layers ~ 1mm apart Local processing and local hit correlation Exploring the concept for muon collider as well

22 Track Trigger Projects Large area arrays (see later) Small demonstrator module Interposer VICTR Chip Sensors Full Module Interposer development High speed, fault tolerant, data flow design Mechanical supports Simulation Short Strip Tier Long Strip Tier

23 Fast Trigger/Tracker Content Addressable Memory stack (CAM) can simultaneously compare external patterns to stored templates. Very fast pattern recognition – at the cost of silicon area CAMs were used in the CDF SVT Similar concept being developed for ATLAS FTK FNAL is working on custom ASIC design

24 Fast Tracker 3D concept can also be used to correlate hits in a multilayer CAM stack Extending the CAM concept to 3D improves density, speed, and power consumption

25 Large Area Arrays The CMS track trigger requires 10x10 cm modules with ~25 chips/module Bonding yield may be ~ 95% Overall yield (.95) 25 ~ 0 Use active edge silicon detector to use known good sensor/detector die – use high yield bump bonds to connect to PCB Saw cut edges on normal silicon are sources of leakage current – stay 3x depth away to limit leakage current - creates dead areas Ion etching used in 3D processes can produce an “atomically smooth” edge – small leakage and sensitive to within a few microns of the edge

26 ROIC DBI sensor SOI bond handle 10  22 200  11 500  cut TSV wafer DBI sensor SOI bond etch ROIC DBI sensor Active edge

27 Digital SIPMs Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (SIPMs) are an emerging replacement for the phototube They are inherently digital – but read out as analog sum of hit pixels Access to digital information using 3D through-silicon-vias would allow Active quenching – faster, less after-pulsing Digital hit counting Position resolution Pixel masking Precise timing Good QE

28 Digital SIPM Development 1.Establish bonding technology (underway) 2.Work with SIPM fabricator to obtain full wafers Use vias inserted post fabrication (via last) or pre fabrication (via first) 3.Design electronics 4.Build and test TSV

29 R&D Collaborations (a partial list) Industry Tezzaron Ziptronix OKI American Semiconductor Vega Wave Laboratories SLAC BNL LBL CERN MIT-LL KEK Sandia - beginning Universities Cornell (laser anneal, large area arrays, simulation, testing) Brown Northwestern UC Davis North Carolina + 17 in 3D collaboration

30 I read these guidelines from Erik after I prepared the talk A short overview of the various ASIC and sensor projects Not so short How these projects will extend into the future. Do you foresee problems with resources? ILC work morphing into other things – other projects have clear paths Physicist and testing resources are scarce for all projects What are the best avenues for new silicon R&D to pursue. Do you need new facilities? There are many opportunities – the hard part is matching our stomachs to our eyes. For us 3D is the enabling common thread. Modern test hardware and design software is crucial and needs continuing investment Technology, once developed, needs to be applied – a difficult problem with decades between experiments How does this tie in with the national picture? Are we falling behind, or breaking new ground? We are real leaders in this field, but we need to collaborate with commercial firms, universities, and other labs that all have unique capabilities

31 Frontiers Precision frontier Precision frontier Processing Frontier Processing Frontier Scale Frontier Scale Frontier This is obviously a shameless attempt to co-opt the Quantum Universe – and doesn’t really work – but we are all friends


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