Presentation on theme: "7th Grade UBD - Unit 6 – Europe. Europe is a continent with varied geographic features, abundant natural resources, and a climate that can support agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
7th Grade UBD - Unit 6 – Europe
Europe is a continent with varied geographic features, abundant natural resources, and a climate that can support agriculture. The development of Europe’s diverse cultures has been shaped by the continent’s diverse geography.
Today, cars, airplanes, and trains are common forms of high speed transportation across Europe. Before the 19th century, however, the fastest form of transportation was to travel by water.
Water surrounds the continent of Europe to the north, south, and west. Europe also has many rivers. The highly traveled Rhine and Danube rivers are two of the most important. For hundreds of years, these and other waterways have been home to boats and barges carrying people and goods inland across great distances.
Key Term Europe- The world’s second- smallest continent; a peninsula of the Eurasian landmass.
Key Term Russia- A country in northern Eurasia; it is the largest country in term of size in the world.
Europe, in general, has a much higher population density than most of the world. By comparison, Russia has a much lower population density. Europe is a small continent. Only Australia is smaller. Europe’s bays include many harbors, or sheltered bodies of water, where ships can dock enabling Western European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry.
Video- Europe and Russia’s Population
Europe, in general, has a much higher population density than most of the world. By comparison, Russia has a much lower population density. Few people live in the vast plains and mountains of Eastern Russia. The poor soil and cold climate make it a difficult place to live.
Key Term Population Density- The average number of people living in a given area.
Europe and Russia are parts of Eurasia, the world’s largest landmass. This landmass is made up of two continents, Europe and Asia. The Ural Mountains mark the dividing line between Europe and Russia.
Some 48 countries are located in Europe; most are small. Many are the size of an average state in the United States. Russia on the other hand is almost twice the size of Canada or the United States.
The continent of Europe has lots of peninsulas and bays. Europe’s bays have enabled Western European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry.
Russia lies on the Arctic Ocean. This body of water is frozen for most of the year and cannot be used for shipping. However, there are no physical features between Russia and Europe that form travel barriers.
Within Europe are four major land regions: the Northwestern Highlands, the North European Plain, the Central Uplands, and the Alpine Mountain System.
Half of Europe is covered by the North European Plain. It includes most of the European part of Russia. This region is the most important region since it has the most productive farmland and the largest cities in Europe.
The North European Plain stretches from the coast of France to the Ural Mountains. The North European Plain is the location of some of the world’s richest farmland.
Europe and the Western part of Russia share the North European Plain. Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, are in this region. There are more people living in this region than in any other part of Russia.
To the East of the Urals is the Asian part of Russia- a region known as Siberia. This region makes up 75 percent of Russian territory, but it has only about 20 percent of Russia’s people.
Lake Baikal, Russia, holds about one fifth of Earth’s fresh water. More than 300 rivers and streams flow into Lake Baikal from the surrounding mountains.
Because Lake Baikal holds so much water, it affects the weather in the area around it. The land near the lake is cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
Key Term Tributary- A river or stream that flows into a larger river.
Video- Lake Baikal
Reading Activity- Eyewitness to History 15
1. What are two examples of ways in which physical features have affected life in Europe and Russia? 2. Think about the areas of Europe and Russia that are most densely populated. What physical features attract people to settle in those areas?
1. What are two examples of ways in which physical features have affected life in Europe and Russia? Good harbors have enabled European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry. Few people live in the vast plains and mountains of eastern Russia. The poor soil and cold climate make it a difficult place to live. 2. Think about the areas of Europe and Russia that are most densely populated. What physical features attract people to settle in those areas? People are attracted to areas that have good soil, access to freshwater and other natural resources.
Reading Handout- A Land of Varied Riches
Write a paragraph about what you would see if you flew in a plane over Europe and Russia. Then explain what physical features would you see. Next, draw a picture of some of those features. (10 minutes)
Warm water from the Gulf of Mexico brings mild weather to much of Europe. The North European Plain was once covered by grasslands, called prairies. Like the forests, most of the prairies have been cleared away. The natural vegetation, or plant life, of Europe and Russia is as varied as the climate. Vegetation regions are related to climate regions.
Areas that are near the ocean or sea have fairly mild weather year round. Areas that are far from the ocean have extreme weather.
Winds blowing across the ocean pick up a great deal of moisture. When these winds blow over land, they drop the moisture in the form of rain.
Video- The Gulf Stream
Key Term The Gulf Stream- The current of warm water which flows across the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico towards Europe.
As wind rises up a mountain, it cools and drops moisture. The air is dry by the time it reaches the other side of the mountain. Areas away from the wind are in a rain shadow.
Key Term Rain Shadow- An area on the sheltered side of a mountain that receives little rainfall.
The natural vegetation, or plant life, of Europe and Russia is as varied as the climate. Vegetation regions are related to climate regions.
The natural vegetation of much of Europe is forest. However, most of these forests have been cleared to make way for farms, factories, and cities. Much of Europe was also once covered by grasslands, called prairies. Like the forests, most of the prairies have also been cleared.
Key Term Prairies- An area of grassland.
Today, the largest forests are found only in Northern Europe and at high altitudes in the mountains. In Northern Europe forests, such as the Black Forest are still being cut for lumber.
Key Term The Black Forest- A hilly forest region in Germany that is still being cut for lumber.
Russia has three great vegetation zones: the tundra, forest, and the grasslands. The tundra and forest zones extend across Siberia. Grasslands cover southwestern Russia.
Key Term Tundra- A region where temperatures are always cool or cold and where only certain plants, such as low grasses, can grow.
Key Term Permafrost- Soil that is permanently frozen.
Key Term Taiga- An enormous Russian forest, it is the largest forest in the world.
1. What different climates and kinds of vegetation does Europe and Russia have?
The natural vegetation of much of Europe is forest and grasslands. However, many have been cleared away. Russia has three great vegetation zones: the tundra, forest, and the grassland.
The United States has many natural resources. Which resources do you think are most important? Why? (5 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
Europe's most important natural resources include fertile soil, water, and fuels. Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of oil and has the largest reserve, or available supply, of natural gas in the world.
Europe is a wealthy region and a world leader in economic development. Part of this wealth and success comes from Europe’s rich supply of natural resources. Europe’s most important natural resources includes fertile soil, water, and fuels.
Much of Europe is covered with rich, fertile soil, especially the region’s river valleys. Good soil, plentiful rain, and a long growing season enables European farmers to produce abundant crops.
During the 1400s Europeans began exploring other lands and continents. They traded for and took new plants and animals they encountered back home with them to Europe.
The exchange of plants and animals between hemispheres is known as the Columbian Exchange. During this exchange many plants and animals moved between Europe and the Americas.
Some of the plants and animals that were only available in the Americas before the 1400s were potatoes, maize, tomatoes, and turkey.
The Columbian Exchange introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheres. This global exchange of goods permanently changed Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
Key Term The Columbian Exchange- The transfer of people, ideas, plants, animals, & diseases between the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Reading Handout- The Columbian Exchange
Video- Crash Course The Columbian Exchange
Many countries in Europe have good locations for the development of hydroelectric power. Damming rivers usually creates or enlarges reservoirs. Dams make people’s lives easier, but they also have negative effects.
While these reservoirs can be useful, in some cases reservoir waters flood surrounding lands, destroying farmland or land that had been used for other purposes. Some reservoirs have become contaminated and are unable to be used for their intended purpose.
Key Term Hydroelectricity- Electric power that is produced by running water, usually with dams.
Key Term Reservoir - The body of water that fills up behind a dam.
Like flowing water, fossil fuels provide a source of energy for industries. They include coal, oil, and natural gas.
An abundance of coal, along with another iron ore gave Europe a head start in the 1800s, when industries grew rapidly. Today, Europe remains a leading world industrial power.
Parts of Europe are rich in coal and iron. Coal was especially valuable as Europe entered the Industrial Revolution. During the Industrial Revolution, Britain and other countries in Europe built large factories.
The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and soon spread elsewhere. Britain fueled an Industrial Revolution, which changed society.
Workers beneﬁted eventually, but at ﬁrst they suffered bad working and living conditions. Other nations followed Britain’s example and industrialized. Thinkers reacted to these changes by developing new views of society. Reformers pushed for changes to make society better.
Key Term The Industrial Revolution- A period in European history during the early 1800s when products once made by hand in homes began to be made by machines in factories.
Reading Handout- The Industrial Revolution
Video- Crash Course- Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution
Russia has developed its natural resources far less than Europe. Russia’s harsh climate, huge size, and few navigable rivers have made it difficult to turn resources into wealth.
Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of oil and has the largest reserve of natural gas in the world. Scientists estimate that the country has about one third of the world’s coal reserves. Russia also has the world’s greatest reserves of iron ore, which is used to make steel.
Key Term Reserves- The available supply of something.
Russia’s huge size presents a major challenge to the county. Russia is continually finding ways to move resources around. Pipelines carry oil and natural gas, and railroads transport coal.
Siberia’s forests are one of Russia’s most important resources. Unlike coal and oil, forests are renewable resources if they are managed carefully.
1. What are the major natural resources of Europe and Russia? 2. Russia is richer in resources than Western Europe. Yet Russians are generally not as wealthy as Western Europeans. How does geography help explain this?
1. What are the major natural resources of Europe and Russia? Europe's most important natural resources include fertile soil, water, and fuels. Russia on the other had has large supplies of natural gas, iron ore, timber and coal reserves. 2. Russia is richer in resources than Western Europe. Yet Russians are generally not as wealthy as Western Europeans. How does geography help explain this? Russia’s harsh climate, huge size, and few navigable rivers have made it difficult to turn resources into wealth.
What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)