2Essential QuestionWhat were the causes and effects of mining booms in the West?Discovery of gold and silver in west led to mining boomEffect: creation of new statesEffect: Transcontinental RailroadEffect: new wave of settlersEffect: benefits to industry
3Gold Silver and Boomtowns Mid 1850s – California gold rush has endedMiners began prospecting in other parts of the WestProspectors skimmed gold dust from streams or scratched particles from the landMost gold is deep undergroundCompanies stand a better chance at getting rich than individuals
5Boom and Bust Gold strikes created boomtowns Towns develop almost overnightLively, lawless places, violence and gamblingMostly men, but some women acted as laundresses, cooks or entertainersEveryday people called, vigilantes, enforced the lawOnce the gold was gone, people left and they became ghost towns
6United States Expands West As mining areas became more populated, they eventually became states1876 – Colorado1889 – North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Montana1890 – Wyoming, Idaho
7Railroads Connect East and West Gold and silver had little value unless they could reach factories, ports and marketsPeople living in boomtowns also needed shipments of food and suppliesNation’s railroads expand rapidly between 1865 and 1890
9Government and the Railroad Railroad construction was often supported by large government subsidiesRailroad executives argued that their companies should receive free public land because connecting East and West would benefit the entire nationFederal government agrees, grants 130 million acres to railroadsMost land is obtained by treaties with Native Americans
11Transcontinental Railroad Enormous Challenge!Low wages/harsh conditions for workersIrishChineseAfrican AmericansHarsh terrain: forests, deserts, mountainsHarsh weather: hot summers, icy winters
12Transcontinental Railroad Race between Union Pacific Company and Central Pacific CompanyMay 10, 1869 – construction is completedEast and West coast are connected
13Effects of Railroads Brought thousands of workers west Boost in steel industry with more needed for tracksCoal producers, railroad car manufacturers, construction companies benefitTowns spring up all along railwayBrings next wave of settlers westFarmersRanchersUNITES THE COUNTRY
14Making Connections What was life like in boomtowns? Lively, lawless placesMore men than womenLaw kept by vigilantesWhy did the government provide subsidies to Railroad Companies?Building a Transcontinental Railroad was expensive and the RR companies argued that the government should pay for it because RRs would bring benefits to the entire nation.
15Ranchers and Farmers Ranchers and Farmers When you hear the word “cowboy” what do you think?How does this song portray the life of a cowboy? Be specific.Romanticized: Deal with or describe in an idealized or unrealistic fashion
16Essential QuestionHow did cattle ranchers and farmers adapt to life in the west?
17Cattle on the PlainsWhen the Spanish settled Mexico and Texas, they brought a tough breed of cattle with them – LonghornsMost of Texas is open range and ranchers added to their herds by rounding up wild cattleThey burned symbols into their hides to mark them as their own
18Railroads and Cow Towns Markets for beef were in the North and EastWhen railroads start expanding east, value of Texas cattle shot upTexans drove their herds to the nearest rail point in Missouri to be shipped EastIncrease in longhorn’s value set off what became known as the Long Drive
20Life on the Great Plains Cowhands and ranchers lived difficult lives on the PlainsRode up to 15 hours a day in the saddleViolent lightning storms, dust storms, blazing sun, freezing nightsLonelyStampedesVaqueros: Hispanic ranch hands who developed riding, roping and branding skills
21The Cattle Kingdom Ends Ranching replaced cattle drives because of hardier, plumper cattleRanchers became rich when cattle prices boomedToo many cattle forced prices downCattle industry survives, but farming becomes main economic activity.Is the life of cowboys romanticized? Why?
22Farmers Settle the Plains Free land and new farming methods brought many settlers to the Great Plains1872 – A Nebraska farmer wrote“One year ago this was a vast, houseless, uninhabited prairie…Today I can see more than thirty dwellings from my door.”
23Farmers Settle the Plains Several factors brought settlers to the PlainsRailroads made journey west easierNew laws offered free landAbove average rainfall in the late 1870s made land better suited for farming
24The Homestead ActThis land gave up to 160 acres to settle for a $10 filing fee and who promised to live on the land for 5 yearsImmigrants and women were eligibleAttracted thousands of new settler to the plains
26New Groups of Settlers Immigrants African Americans End of Reconstruction mean end of protection in the SouthFearing for their safety, they moved WestBy 1881, more than 40,000 had migrated to Kansas
27Women on the Frontier Worked hard in the fields alongside men Sewed clothing, made candles, cooked and preserved foodKept farm running when men were awayChildren worked the farms as well
28The Oklahoma Land RushOklahoma Territory, designated by Congress as “Indian” Territory was the last region of the Plains to be settledGovernment opens is up to settlers on April 22, 18891890 census reveals the frontier was no moreSettlement had greatly changed the Plains, especially for Native Americans
29Making ConnectionsWhy do you think cow hands capture the imagination of many Americans?Making PredictionsHow do you think the Oklahoma Land Rush affected Native Americans?
30Native American Struggles How did westward expansion affect Native Americans?
31Following the BuffaloNative Americans of the Great Plains depended on buffalo to survive, but railroads threatened this lifestyleGreat Plains Indians like the Comanche, Sioux and Blackfeet lived a nomadic life following their food source
33Following the BuffaloFor most of their history the Plains Native Americans had millions of buffalo to supply their needs. After the Civil War however, American hunters hired by the railroads began slaughtering the animals to feel their building crews. Railroad companies also wanted to prevent the giant herds of buffalo from blocking the tracks. Starting in 1872, hunters targeted buffalo to sell their hides back east.
35ConflictConflict between Native Americans and whites grew as Native Americans were forced onto reservationsArmy was given authority to deal with any groups who would not move
36Reservation LifeGovernment agents often used trickery to persuade Native Americans to move to reservationsLocated on poor landGovernment often failed to deliver food and suppliesSome groups abandoned reservation lifeThe stage was set for conflict
37Conflict BeginsSiouxSummer of 1862 – Red Cloud and Sioux warriors burned and looted homes and killed hundreds before being stopped by the army1866 – Crazy Horse and Sioux warriors tricked military leadersCheyenne and Arapaho killed hundreds of settlers as wellSand Creek Massacre: Army killed hundreds of Cheyenne on their way to make peace in Colorado
38Little Big Horn1868 – Government signed treaty that promised “No white person or persons shall be permitted” to settle on the Black HillsHowever, prospectors swarmed the area looking for goldSitting Bull, Crazy Horse and their Sioux warriors gathered along Little Big Horn River to meet the US armyWithin 30 minutes, Colonel George Custer and his 250 soldiers were dead
40The Dawes ActPassed in 1877 to remove what whites regarded as two weaknesses of Native American cultureLack of private propertyNomadic tribal lifeEach Native American received a plot of land to farm
41Native Americans and Westward Expansion The Westward Expansion of the late 1800s continued to create problems for the Native Americans who stood in its path. By the 1840s, only scattered groups of Native Americans still lived in the East. Most lived west of the Mississippi on lands that few whites wantedThe California Gold RushTranscontinental RailroadDiscovery of rich farmland in the Great Plans
42Native Americans and Westward Expansion All of these factors changed the view of white people and they began to move onto Native Americans lands in the WestOne way that Native Americans tried to “fit in” with the white settlers was to obey the law that was passed by Congress in 1887.The Dawes Act
43Native Americans and Westward Expansion The purpose of this act was to break up tribes of Native Americans and reservations. It offered Natives who gave up tribal ways the deed to their land and US citizenship after 25 years.Questions to considerWas the Dawes Act fair to the Native Americans? Why or why not?Did the Native Americans Support it?Did the economy of the West rely on the same kinds of business as the economy of the North? If so, how?
45Wounded KneePolice shot and killed Sitting Bull for leading the ritual of the Ghost DanceIn response, several Lakota Sioux gathered at a creek called Wounded KneeArmy killed over 200 Native AmericansMarks the end of the conflict between the US Government and Native Americans
47LettersYou are a Native American living in the American West! Every year, westward expansion is taking its toll on you and your people. Write a letter to the United States government highlightingThe struggles that you and your people faceThe effects that westward expansion has on your daily lifeThe effect you hope your letter has on the policies of the United States governmentBe sure to include relevant facts and detailsMust be at least 10 sentences long!
48Farmers in Protest Essential Question Why did farmers organize and begin reform movements in the late 1800s?
49The Farmers OrganizeAfter the Civil War, farming expanded in the West and the SouthHowever, the supply of crops grew faster than the demand and prices fellFarmers blamed their troubles on 3 groups
50Farmers in Protest Farmers blamed their troubles on 3 groups Railroad CompaniesCharged high shipping ratesEastern manufacturersCharged high prices for their productsBankersCharged high interest rates for borrowing money for seed and equipmentFarmers began to organize in an effort to solve their problemsForm a mass political movement
51Farmers Populists and Politics For many years, farmers were ignored by the American public especially in Congress and government. During the latter half of the 19th century, farmers were gaining more influence through two organizations. The Grange and the Populist Party.One of the main reasons that 3rd parties tend to develop in the United States is because of the major issues that are ignored by the two major parties.
52Farmers Populists and Politics The Populist Party – Party started by a group of farmers to give them a representative voice in government. This party had 3 major goals1. Graduated Income Tax2. Direct Election of Senators (Amendment 17)3. Government ownership of railroads, telegraphs and telephones
53Farmers Populists and Politics Another group designed to help farmers create a better life and lifestyle for themselves was The GrangeWhat was the goal of this organization?To develop strong social ties between farmers and industrialists. They wanted to win back power from the railroads.Was it successful?Fairly successful (Munn vs. Illinois)
54Farmers Populists and Politics The Election of 1896Populist candidate William Jennings Bryan makes a bid for the White House but falls short to Republican President William McKinley. One of the major issues during the campaign was the passage and coinage of free silverWhat is free silver?Free coinage of silver would produce cheap money or currency inflated in value that would make it easy for farmers to pay off debtsWhy do you think William McKinley was opposed to free silver?He had the support of big business