5 The Arctic is the area around the Earth's north pole and includes parts of northern Canada, Greenland, northern Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Arctic Ocean.
10 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS Cold Polar ClimatesThick Ice ShelvesIce Cap No vegetation grow average temperature below freezing year round Tundra-harsh and dry, no trees only small shrubs and bushes; permafrostHarsh and Dry, only cold air massesLast Places on Earth to be exploredAnimals Seals and birds
11 Tilt of the Earth and Solstice The tilt of the Earth on its axis at 23½° and the revolution around the sun causes the changing of the seasons and the north and south poles to have light and then darkness 6 months of the year.On December 22 during Winter Solstice the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn at 23½°S, and the South Pole has sunlight 24 hours a day.On June 21,during Summer Solstice the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer at 23½°N, and the North Pole has sunlight 24 hours a day.
12 Antarctica Coldest windiest and driest continent Holds 70% of the world fresh waterInterior precipitation less than 2” per yearLargest iceberg ever spotted208 miles long and 60 miles wide
13 Glacier Antarctic 5.1 million square miles Highest Peak Vinson Massif 16,067ft.Lowest Point Bentley Subglacial Trench -8,383ftColdest Place Plateau Station- Average -70°CMt. Erebus World’s southern most volcanoMt. ErebusCurrent Antarctic Weather
17 Antarctic Government-none Several countries have claims for scientific researchUnited Kingdom, Australia, Argentina, Chile, France, New Zealand, and NorwayResearch stations only: U.S., Russia, India, JapanAntarctic Treaty of 1959 provides peaceful guidelines for scientific research among nations.
18 List of Wildlife in the Polar Regions ArcticSnow bunting (bird)WalrusBanded SealBrent gooseBearded SealElephant SealHarp SealPolar BearBewick’s SwanDunlin (bird)Greenland collard lemming (rodent)Gyr Falcon (bird)ReindeerErmine (mammal)Arctic SkuaArctic HareArctic FoxArctic tern (bird)AntarcticChinstrap PenguinEmperor PenguinAdelie PenguinGentooHourglass dolphinKiller WhaleHumpback whaleRoss SealLeopard SealWeddell SealGreat Shearwater BirdAntarctic Skua (bird)Crab-eater Seal
30 Thousands of years before Peary and his expeditions arrived, as far back as 2000 BC, a group of people had been thriving in the harsh polar environment. The Inuit, Aleut and the Eurasian Arctic cultures are defined by uniformity of practices and customs, and not geography. In the Western Arctic, the region where Peary explored, the Inuit speak Inuktitut which is written with special characters called syllabics.
31 Inuit clothing, made from seal, caribou and other fur bearing animals, is ideally suited for the Arctic. The finest and warmest garments placed two layers of fur back to back, thus fur was on the outside and the inside of the garment next to the wearer's skin. The air trapped between the skins, as well as the air between the fur creates great insulation. The success of many polar expeditions came from adopting the "native ways."
32 ARCTIC HOUSINGCIRCA HOME WERE MADE OF DRIFTWOOD ON STILTS IN THE SUMMER, AND IGLUS WERE MADE IN THE WINTER ON THE FROZEN ICE.The houses in the photo on the left are built upon stilts of driftwood. This photo was taken in about 1900 during summer. In fall, the sea used to freeze to a depth of fifteen feet. People moved out onto the ice to live in igloos. This drawing was made in Baffin Bay by the official expedition recorder. The long low igloo doorways keep heat in and keep polar bears out.
33 Arctic Photos Killer Whale, National Geographic
34 Walrus in Bering Sea, Alaska National Geographic Walruses are social animals, often living in groups of over a hundred individuals. Eskimos and other hunters value the creature for its blubber, hide, and ivory tusks
35 Polar BearsDefenders of Wildlife-Adopt a Polar Bear
36 Arctic Fox national geographic National Geographic Arctic Animal Photo Gallery
37 Arctic Fox on ridge Hudson Bay, Canada national geographic
41 sUrViVaLThere are four basic principles to follow to keep warm. An easy way to remember these basic principles is to use the word COLD--C - Keep clothing clean.O - Avoid overheating.L - Wear clothes loose and in layers.D - Keep clothing dry.
43 Robert E. Peary-First Man to Reach the North Pole Even as a boy, Robert E. Peary, born on May 6, 1856, dreamed of exploring the "roof of the world," the frozen Arctic north. They had no parkas or space-age fabrics and no cell phones or advanced navigational devices, but Robert E. Peary and his assistant, Matt Henson, set out to reach the North Pole for the first time in No one had been there before. Indeed, it took Peary years to put the expedition together.
44 An engineer, Peary was sent on his first job to the warm tropics rather than the icy northland. In Nicaragua, in Central America, he brought along his African-American assistant, Matthew Henson who became such a trusted companion that the two men traveled together on all of Peary's expeditions. Together, they took steps toward their northernmost goal.Matthew Henson
45 Peary and Henson traveled to Greenland to prepare for the trip, where they learned survival techniques in the sub-zero temperatures from the Inuit tribes of Greenland.
46 The ship they were traveling on failed to make it through the ice The ship they were traveling on failed to make it through the ice. They tried again in 1908, setting out with 24 companions and 133 dogs. This time, according to their calculations, they made it to the North Pole on April 6, But scientists discovered in 1989 that Peary and Henson were actually just short of the Pole. Still, Peary and Henson showed that exploration was possible in Arctic regions and paved the way for future explorers. Have you ever done something that made it easier for the next person to do the same thing?
47 Antarctic Expeditions First men to reach the South Pole were Roald Admundsen a Norwegian in Dec 1911 , and a month later Robert Falcon Scott, an Englishman and his crew died on the journey home.Earnest Shackleton attempted to make the first Transcontinental expedition across Antarctica.