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China: A Brief Background Introduction. Early China in Eastern Hemisphere Context Chinese Agriculture = c. 4000 BCE; Chinese Civilization = 1766 BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "China: A Brief Background Introduction. Early China in Eastern Hemisphere Context Chinese Agriculture = c. 4000 BCE; Chinese Civilization = 1766 BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 China: A Brief Background Introduction

2 Early China in Eastern Hemisphere Context Chinese Agriculture = c BCE; Chinese Civilization = 1766 BCE

3 Early Traditional Chinese Yin/Yang Values

4 Earliest Chinese Civilization: Warrior Aristocratic Rule in Shang ( BCE) and Western Zhou ( s BCE) Oracle Bones War Chariot

5 Shang Oracle Bone on Lady Hao’s Childbirth Que divined: Lady Hao will give birth and it will be good Prognostication: The King read the cracks and said: “If it be on a ding day that she give birth, it will be good. If it be on a geng day that she give birth, it will be prolonged auspiciousness.” Verification: [After] thirty-one days, on jiajin, she gave birth. It was not good. It was a girl

6 Early Zhou Continue Shang Aristocratic Ways, But Late Zhou (770 – 200s BCE) China Really Divided into Warring States

7 Late Zhou = Roots of New, Classical China Great Thinkers try understand what makes best world: – Legalists say must have harsh rule for order – Daoists say small or no government best – Confucius says rule by excellent men, for sake of all, is best (eventually becomes China’s ruling belief – but not for several centuries) All assume patriarchal family, some male dominance

8 Basic Confucian Ideas Ruler & state should serve all the people Educated gentlemen make the best officials Peasants are foundation of state; craftspeople are OK; merchants have little value Women should submit to men

9 Qin Shi Huangdi Unifies, Rules China BCE Marks end of aristocrat- dominated era Early Chinese Civilization Creates unified bureaucratic-centered state – needed to end wars among small states, be able withstand nomad attacks Later Scholars say fell because of its harsh Legalist philosophy

10 Qin Emperor’s Great Terracotta Army

11 Qin Army Closeups

12 Han China Follows Qin, Adopts Confucianism as “Good” Ruling Philosophy

13 Confucian Era Lasts Years Han Era, 206 BCE – 220 CE (Era of Disunity = 220 – 581) Tang Era, Song Era, (Mongol Conquest Era = 1200s – 1368) Ming Era, 1368 – 1644 Qing Era,

14 Confucian China = Increasing Urbanism, Prosperity, Arts, Culture

15 Tang Era Elite Women: Some Freedom of Movement, Public Beauty

16 Women Increasingly Constrained: Footbinding (10 th –20th C CE)

17 Interesting Note: Qing (Manchu – ) Shoes Look Bound, But Aren’t


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