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Chapter 5 Other Americans: Indians and Africans in the Colonies.

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1 Chapter 5 Other Americans: Indians and Africans in the Colonies

2 Eastern Woodland Indians Hunters Bow and arrow Hunted tribal territories Fished using hook, net, and trap Farmers Slash and burn, girdled trees Women did farming Grew nuts, fruits, maize, squash, beans, melons, tobacco Frequent shortages and starving times Were semi-nomadic Linguistically Siouan, Algonquian, Iroquois, Muskohegan Most spoke Algonquian or Iroquois Warriors Chronic problem, but less bloody than European was not about killing Warriors sought personal glory, chaotic and undisciplined

3 The Iroquois Confederacy Most powerful of eastern Indians At first warred among themselves Hiawatha formed Confederation Five Nations Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk Matrilineal society Women choose tribal delegates Men more nomadic, women dominated many elements of government Men moved to wife’s family home

4 A World Turned Upside Down European diseases ravaged tribes Diphtheria, cholera, typhus, measles, smallpox Spanish wanted to conquer, live among, and govern Indians English wanted to push Indians off of their land Groups seldom intermarried

5 Indians and Christianity English colonists believed Indians were descendants of 10 lost tribes of Israel Wanted to bring them to true religion But wanted to recreate a “new” England which did not have place for Indians Few Indians converted to Puritan Protestantism unlike French and Spanish who converted many Catholicism was multi-cultural and adapted English colonists were nationalistic Religion was part of being English Protestants were usually literate and worship focused on this aspect that unavailable to Indians

6 Land Hunger and Trade Pilgrims settled on vacated land Some English try to “buy” land Different understanding of “owning” land Many English just took land by conquest Different kinds of farming English permanently changed landscape English traded with Indians Indians want manufactured goods: tools, weapons, textiles, liquor Whites want food and fur Rivalry for furs created new kind of destructive Indian warfare Fur trade Killed too many animals too quickly Destroyed animals and ecology Destroyed Indians way of life

7 King Philip’s War 1675 Alliance of tribes try to stop colonial advance Led by Wampanoag Chief Metacomet (“King Philip”) Other tribes allied with either side Killed many Puritans - devastating War ends with leader’s death Mixed feelings Indians were tribal but no racists Colonists considered Indians “savages” and racially inferior After war banished all Indians Colonists often admired Indian lifestyle Indians viewed colonists with disdain Colonists could adapt to Indian lifestyle but Indians never accepted as equals in white lifestyle

8 Americans from Africa Essential to economic development of America Mostly from Gulf of Guinea in West Africa Brought against their will – involuntary immigrants By 1660 they were separated by law Spanish used slavery in their colonies English had no tradition of slavery New uses for an old institution English adapted tradition of apprenticeships Apprentices neither slave or free Not owned by masters Create institution of indentured servants

9 Indentured Servants Well suited for plantations who needed labor Signed up and passage paid to New World Worked for 3-7 years Also used for convicts Redemption After 1700 laws to protect English servants German immigrants could work for German-American families who paid their passage – “redeemed” Shippers persuaded poor Germans to commit to a company who sold their rights Very harsh travel conditions

10 Black Servants Entered Jamestown in 1619 Treated as indentured servants 1624 New Amsterdam New York high numbers with a few slaves but treated as servants and often gained freedom Indentured servants cheaper than African slaves All newcomers had short life expectancies

11 The Emergence of Slavery In Chesapeake and South changing laws: Durante vita made them servants for life Children had status of mother = enslaved 1662 Virginia harsh punishment for sex between blacks and whites 1682 Christianity not reason to free black servant Role of Race Learned from colonists in Caribbean Could make Africans slaves since not protected by English law Harder for Africans to escape than white servants In economic interest of tobacco planters to make them permanent slave labor Better buy White indentured servants cheaper to buy and transport Life expectancy short and high death rate After 1700 changed Life expectancy lengthened Africans better survival of malaria and yellow fever

12 The African Slave Trade Some whites captured slaves Slaves traded for manufactured goods Business transactions; not racially oriented British, Swedes, Danes, Germans, Brandenburgers Slaving was cooperative between Europeans and African Mixed-race intermediaries Slaves usually captured by enemy tribes Ashanti Confederation Sold in European trading forts Voyage to New World for slaves Most inhumane aspect of slave trade Crammed into ships Preceded and followed by overland marches High death rates

13 West African Roots 10 millions slaves taken to New world 400 thousand to North America From lands bordering Gulf of Guinea Many different language groups Stopped at West Indies first to season Slave stations Forts and places of business On coast and inland Europeans attacked each other’s forts Island forts prized Horrible conditions and high death rates Most negotiators were mixed blood Portuguese lanrados Contained churches High use of alcohol

14 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 5.1 – The Native American Tribes 1650 – 1750

15 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 5.2 – West Africa and the Roots of Slavery 1500 – 1810

16 Discussion Questions Examine the Iroquois Confederation. Who was Hiawatha? Explain gender roles in the Confederation. Who was Metacomet and what was his role in King Philip’s War? Why did the colonies go form indentured servitude to slavery? What impact would this have on the history of the United States? Examine the African slave trade. Who were the buyers? Who were the sellers? What was its long term affect on Africa and the New World?

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