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Colonies Become New Nations

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Presentation on theme: "Colonies Become New Nations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonies Become New Nations
Independence movements swept through Africa and Asia at the end of WWII

2 Who is Mohandas Gandhi? Gandhi had been practicing civil disobedience/nonviolence in retaliation of British colonialism in India (foreign influence) Salt March Helped India gain independence

3 How well did Muslims and Hindus get along in India?
Disliked each other and were fighting for political power (religious conflict) Both feared each other being in power and being harsh to the other group “The only thing the Muslim has in common with the Hindu is his slavery to the British”

4 How did they solve the problem?
Partition of India Only safe solution Britain saw to prevent as much conflict as possible The territory is split in two: India: Hindu Pakistan: Muslim

5 Partition of India

6 How well did the migrations to the new territories go?
Caused millions to move to new areas Each religious group began killing each other as they moved to their new nations 1 million died Gandhi pleaded for the violence to stop but was killed by a Hindu extremist who thought he was being too nice to the Muslims

7 Battle for Kashmir Muslims and Hindus fought over the small region of Kashmir Piece of land between Pakistan and India Hindu ruler but the majority of the population were Muslim Result: Fighting continued until the UN arranged a cease fired in 1949 Split up the territory but still fight over it today (Great Example of continuing RELIGIOUS CONFLICT!!!!!)

8 Modern India Became the world’s largest democracy!!!
Process of becoming democratic has been slow Issues with overpopulation/ successful in producing enough crops food so far Caste system outlawed but still impacts daily life through what jobs people can get (Gap between tradition and the law) Continuing religious conflicts Threat of nuclear conflict w/Pakistan Both have become nuclear powers Continuing struggle for Kashmir could spark a nuclear conflict between the bitter enemies

9 Female Leaders Indira Gandhi: India Benazir Bhutto: Pakistan
Significance: became important national leaders in nations in which women have not traditionally had equal opportunities

10 History of Pakistan

11 History of Pakistan 1947: Started off as a divided country
West P: province of Punjab East P: became known as Bangladesh West dominated the government of Pakistan even though the east had a larger population West created economic opportunities in their own territory but not in the east

12 East Pakistan Breaks Away
East struggled and remained in poverty Was difficult to trade with the west due to India being in the middle East announced their independence from Pakistan under the new name of Bangladesh West Pakistan was furious and attempted to put down the movement

13 East Pakistan Breaks Away
India took the Bengalis side and helped them to win their independence Significance: West Pakistan becomes known as Pakistan and acknowledged the existence of the creation of Bangladesh in 1971

14 Modern Bangladesh Has struggled with many challenges
One of the world’s poorest and most crowded countries! EX: their population is more than half as large as the United States but is only the size of Alabama! Environmental Problems Devastating floods and tropical storms

15 What is the main point? Even though Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh gained their Independence from Britain they are still struggling to achieve stability Assassination of leaders Religious conflict Nuclear threat

16 Southeast Asian Nations Gain Independence

17 Impact of WWII Japan had seized most of southeast Asia from the European nations that had controlled the area for years Defeat of Japan in the war would cause them to be forced out Southeast Asian territories refused to go back under European colonial rule and pushed for independence

18 Independence Achieved
Philippines became the first in 1946 Given by the U.S. Make a deal to allow the U.S. to keep their naval base there (important location due to the cold war) Burma (Myanmar) gains independence from Britain Ruled by a harsh military government that refuses to accept the democratic changes the public wants

19 Malaysia and Singapore
Both have achieved independence and economic prosperity Singapore has one of the busiest ports in the world that has helped them to grow rich. (high standard of living)

20 Indonesian Independence
Win it from the Dutch (Netherlands) Attempted to build a democratic nation but were unsuccessful Struggle economically Harsh military dictatorship emerges Several human rights violations and little religious freedom Annex East Timor (harsh towards them)

21 East Timor Poorly treated but never gave up on their fight for freedom
Indonesian soldiers put down an independence movement slaughtering hundreds and force thousands to flee to West Timor Result: UN gets involved and brings peace and helped East Timor achieve their independence

22 Conflicts in the Middle East
Division of Palestine after WWII made the Middle East a hotbed of competing nationalist movements that have caused friction that still exist today.

23 Israel Becomes a State Palestine holds religious significance to the Muslims, Christians, and Jews Split into Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip Jews claimed the land from when they ruled the area of Jerusalem 3,000 years ago Palestinians (both Muslim and Christian) said it was their land since they drove the Jews out in 135 AD. Arabs believed it was their land from their conquests in the 7th century Significance: Creation of the state/country of Israel was a controversial issue


25 Why did Israel become a state?
After being forced out of Palestine in the 2nd century the Jewish population could not find a place to live and establish their own state Forced to live in numerous countries Dispersal is known as the Diaspora Began to return to Palestine and demand their own state in the 19th and 20th century Strongly opposed by the Palestinians creating hostility between the two End of WWII, UN voted to settle the issue with a partition creating two separate states Jerusalem would be an international city controlled by neither state Sympathy for the Jews from the Holocaust played a factor in the partition

26 Israel and Arab State Conflict
Day after it became a state, 6 Islamic neighbors invaded Israel! Significance: a series of wars would result in the creation of Israel and it remains a hotspot still today The state that was suppose to be Palestine never formed and is controlled by several Arab states

27 Taking Palestinian Land
Egypt took the Gaza strip Jordan took the West Bank of the Jordan River Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal from the British Wanted to gain control of vital resources

28 Arab-Israeli Wars Continue
Continued to fight one another exchanging control of territories back and forth Yom Kippur War Egyptian President Anwar Sadat planned a joint attack by the Arab states on Israel on Yom Kippur (Jewish Holiday) Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir launched a counter attack to regain the territory Results: both sides eventually came to a truce

29 PLO Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestinians struggled for recognition with all the fighting between the Israel and the Arab states Formed to push for their formation of an independent state Radicals emerged as the leaders and felt armed struggle was the only way to achieve success

30 Yasser Arafat Became leader of the PLO
60s & 70s: PLO carried out numerous attacks against Israel under his leadership Some Arab neighbors supported the PLO’s goals and allowed them to operate from their lands

31 Attempts at Peace 1977: Anwar Sadat (Egyptian President) shocked the world by extending a hand of peace to Israel In exchange for peace, Israel would recognize the rights of Palestinians and return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt Camp David Accords Jimmy Carter guided the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel Significance: Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize the state of Israel

32 Israeli & Palestinian Tensions Increase
PLO and Israelis continued to fight armed conflicts on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (lands controlled by Israel) Intifada (Uprising): expressed their frustrations through civil disobedience Boycotts, demonstrations, attacks on Israeli soldiers Oslo Peace Accords: Israel gave the Palestinians self rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank

33 Central Asia Struggles
Main Idea: Lands controlled or influenced by the Soviet Union struggle with the challenges of establishing new nations.

34 Freedom Brings New Challenges
15 nations gained their independence with the fall of the Soviet Union Have struggled economically and are some of the poorest countries in the world today! Depend on the single crop of cotton (white gold) because the soviets changed all of their farmlands into cotton fields Fighting among various ethnic and religious groups has increased the instability

35 History of Afghanistan
small nation that is mostly desert and mountainous One of the least developed nations in the world Mostly farmers or herders Strategic land next to the Indian Ocean that the British and Russians wanted and fought over in the 1800s (Age of Imperialism) Gained independence in 1919 1964: attempted to make democratic reforms but they failed to develop

36 Soviets Invade Afghanistan
Afghanistan tried to remain Neutral during the cold war Received aid from both superpowers Being so close to the Soviets, they could not hold up against the force of communism Radical group with strong ties to the soviets seized control of the country Many disliked the ideas of communism and felt they conflicted with the teachings of Islam

37 Pushing Out The Soviets
Opposition to the soviets formed the mujahedeen (holy warriors) Took up arms and fought the soviet supported govt. Forced the Soviet Union to step in and brought in soldiers and their superior weapons (1979) Outcome: Afghan rebels used the land, guerilla warfare, and U.S. financial and military aid to force the Soviets out in a bloody 10 year war

38 Taliban Rebel groups began battling each other for power
Taliban: conservative Islamic group won control World view of the Taliban was positive at first as it brought order but their extreme following of Islamic law brought problems Women not allowed an education/job Censorship of media Violations of laws brought beatings and executions Role in Terrorism is final blow to their credibility

39 Fall of Taliban Western leaders accused the Taliban of allowing terrorist groups to train in their country Provided protection for Bin Laden whose Al-Qaeda organization is responsible for numerous attacks on the west (9/11) U.S demanded Taliban turn over Bin Laden Their refusal led to the U.S invading Afghanistan in 2001 and taking down the Taliban Future will be difficult as the region is very diverse making it difficult to be unified and stable

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