Presentation on theme: "Back to 1609 Time Police Force CSI Division You have been assigned to go back to 1609, to research the deaths that occurred during the early-settlement."— Presentation transcript:
Time Police Force CSI Division You have been assigned to go back to 1609, to research the deaths that occurred during the early-settlement of New France (1604- 1608). These deaths put a damper on colonizing the New World as many feared living there. It is your job to travel to New France in order to determine the cause/origin of this disease referred to as the “Distemper of the Land”.
“The Distemper of the Land” Case # 209384 New France 1604-1609
Ready to go? The disease that is claiming many life in New France is called Scurvy. This horrible disease has disgusting side effects: swollen purple gums, easy bruising, tiredness, teeth falling out and bleeding eyeballs.
Ready to go? You wisely decide that, it might be better to research the cause of scurvy before going to the 1600’s and catching it first hand. Champlain referred to this disease as the “distemper of the land”, and it is known that scurvy hit all three of Champlain’s settlements. Is it possible that the settlements might hold the answer? What do they have in common? What could link them together?
Part 2: Identifying the Cause The settlements of Samuel de Champlain between 1604-1608
Figure de la Terre-Neuve, Grande rivière de Canada, et côtes de l’Océan de la Nouvelle-France Marc Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle France 1609
1604 Ste. Croix Champlain 1613, taken from “France nouvelle-France, naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique
1604 Ste. Croix Saint-Croix is an island During the construction of the settlement, all of the island’s trees were cut down for building purposes What were the advantages and disadvantages of this geographic situation? Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1604 Ste. Croix Positive aspect Offers a strategic advantage Negative Aspect Completely cut off in winter No game (animals to hunt) Lack of fire wood Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1604 Living in Ste. Croix “…the mosquitoes annoyed us excessively in our work. For there were several of our men whose faces were so swollen by their bites that they could scarcely see.” (Champlain 1604) “All our liquor froze.. Cider was dispensed by the pound” Champlain describing the harsh winter of 1604
1604 Agriculture in Ste. Croix Champlain and the other colonists planted wheat and various vegetables. Unfortunately it was too late in the season and the settlers were unable to harvest their plantings in time for winter. They had to live on the provisions brought from France until the month of June.
1604 Ste. Croix Approximately half of the settlers perished during the harsh winter of 1604. They decided to change locations, burning the bedding of the dead in case scurvy was contagious. The island was too small to bury all of the settlers, another burial site was needed for the remaining scurvy victims.
1605-1607 Port Royal Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1605-1607 Port Royal Port-Royal is located in a valley 1 st permanent French settlement in Canada What were the advantages and disadvantages of this geographic situation? Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1605-1607 Port Royal Positive aspect Protected from the harsh winter Still connected to the land (settlers can still hunt, heat and bake bread) Negative Aspect Not centrally located for the trading of furs Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1605-1607 Agriculture in Port Royal Again, in 1605, Champlain and his settlers were too late to Champlain enjoy the results of their hard work. Supplies began to run low During the 1605 winter 12 settlers died of scurvy.
1605-1607 Agriculture in Port Royal However, the following year, Champlain and the other colonists, planted wheat, rye, hemp, turnips, radishes, carrots and parsnips.
1605-1607 Port Royal In 1606, Champlain decided to establish the “Order of Good Cheer”. Each member of the order is given the opportunity to prepare a feast and outdo the previous chef. This ensured that the members of the order (fifteen gentlemen) ate well That winter only seven settlers died of scurvy, none where members of the “Order of good Cheer”
1608 Quebec Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1608 Quebec Positive aspect Excellent strategic position Allows for control of the St-Lawrence river Potential Port Negative Aspect Cut off in the winter time due to ice and fast waters Image taken from “France Nouvelle-France naissance d’un peuple Français en Amerique”
1608 Agriculture in Quebec Champlain prepared his gardening earlier and began to plant in July. He kept 27 men to winter in New France, the other returned home. That year, scurvy struct resulting in the death of all but 8 of the 28 men.
1608 Agriculture in Quebec Champlain planned experimental farms around the settlement. For example, he compared growth in a tilled field with that of a forest floor. He grew vines (native and European), vegetables and various grains.
Mortality rate 1604-1609 Why does the mortality rate fluctuate from year to year? # of settlers# of deaths Ste. Croix7936 Port Royal 1605 1606 (unknown) 12 7 Quebec2820 (including the settlements surgeon)
Ready to go? Based on the information of the settlements, can you determine a cause for scurvy?
Science behind Scurvy Scurvy is one of the first diseases found to be caused by a dietary deficiency (lack of a nutrient). Scurvy is a result of a lack of Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid). Did Champlain have a continuous supply? In what foods can you find Vitamin C?
Role of Vitamin C “Vitamin C is required for the growth and repair of tissues (…) It is necessary to from collagen, an important protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels (…)It is essential for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth”. According to the medical encyclopedia,:
Science behind scurvy Vitamin C dissolves in water, and therefore the human body cannot store it. In order to maintain healthy we need a continuous supply of this vitamin. Did Champlain have a continuous supply? In what foods can you find Vitamin C?
Foods with Vitamin C Most vegetables and fruit contain an amount of Vitamin C. Eating fresh and varied fruits and vegetables are essential to a healthy diet.
Mortality rate 1604-1609 So, why does the mortality rate fluctuate from year to year? # of settlers# of deaths Ste. Croix7936 Port Royal 1605 1606 (unknown) 12 7 Quebec2820 (including the settlements surgeon)
Steps taken by Champlain that decreased the impact of Scurvy The Good Cheer club (1607) Assured that the members of the order were eating varied foods Agriculture (1607, 1609) Assured that the fruits and vegetables were relatively fresh
Agriculture of native plants During his settlement attempts, Champlain discovered many plants foreign to Europe. Many of which, unknowingly, contained vitamin C. Image taken from “The Colonial Dream:, Canada’s Illustrated Heriagee”
PLUMS CURRANTS RASBERRIES Image modified from “The Colonial Dream:, Canada’s Illustrated Heriagee”
Nutritional Values of Native plants Plums (1 fruit): Proteins:0,52g Carbs:8,6g Lipids:0,41g Vitamin C26% Rasberries (1 cup) Proteins:1g Carbs:15g Lipids:1g Vitamin C54% The percentile of Vitamin C is based on the daily value needed for the average adult.
Nutritional Values of imported plants Radishes raw (116g): Proteins:1g Carbs:4g Lipids:0g Vitamin C29% Parsnips raw (133g) Proteins2g Carbs:24g Lipids:0g Vitamin C:38% Cooked:17% Food preparation (cooking, grilling, even pasteurization) can decrease the content of Vitamin C by “decomposing” the molecule.
Surviving the winter The Europeans brought plants that would have provided vitamin C. They could not be dried as could plums and other native fruits and could only with difficulty be preserved over the winter
Case Closed Without even traveling to 1609, you were able to determine the origin of scurvy. You also saved yourself from packing a create of lemons
Was this the only time Scurvy was rampant? Scurvy affected sailors until the cause was discovered in 1930. Before then lemons were known to cure the disease. However, for some, it was quite a pricy cure. 1774 – James Lind discovered a cure for scurvy. However his solution was not accepted by the navy, who thought it much cheaper to hire new crew than to buy lemons.