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Middle East & the Spread of Islam First Global Civilization? Chapter 6 & 7 Pg. 126-160.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle East & the Spread of Islam First Global Civilization? Chapter 6 & 7 Pg. 126-160."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle East & the Spread of Islam First Global Civilization? Chapter 6 & 7 Pg. 126-160

2 Define Bedouin Bedouin Arab Arab Islam Islam Muslim Muslim

3 Pre-Islamic Arab World Arabian Peninsula = harsh desert Arabian Peninsula = harsh desert CitiesCities TownsTowns BedouinsBedouins Clans: Rivalry & Vengeance Harsh climate = dependence on clan Harsh climate = dependence on clan Social cohesion reinforced by warriors, control of pastureland, & water Social cohesion reinforced by warriors, control of pastureland, & water

4 Bedouin woman Bedouin woman Bedouins on the move from oasis to oasis Bedouins on the move from oasis to oasis

5 Towns & Trade Several key towns arose near Red Sea as a result of transcontinental trade Several key towns arose near Red Sea as a result of transcontinental trade MeccaMecca MedinaMedina

6 Marriage & Family Bedouin women enjoyed higher status than neighbors Bedouin women enjoyed higher status than neighbors In urban environments, women’s status was much lower In urban environments, women’s status was much lower Poets & Gods Because of the harsh environment… Because of the harsh environment… Material culture neglected in favor of oral poetryMaterial culture neglected in favor of oral poetry Animistic polytheismAnimistic polytheism

7 Genesis of Islam Byzantine & Persian empires in N & E Mesopotamia struggled against each other to expand influence Byzantine & Persian empires in N & E Mesopotamia struggled against each other to expand influence Bedouins face crisisBedouins face crisis Muhammad rises to challenge Muhammad rises to challenge Meditation → Revelation → QuranMeditation → Revelation → Quran Islam is born! Islam is born!

8 Persecution, Flight, Victory Muhammad threatens the status of Mecca’s Umayyad clan Muhammad threatens the status of Mecca’s Umayyad clan Fled to Medina & earns new convertsFled to Medina & earns new converts Muhammad returns to Mecca smashing idols in Kaba Muhammad returns to Mecca smashing idols in Kaba Islam reigns supremeIslam reigns supreme

9 Arabs & Islam Islam addresses needs & weaknesses of Arab society Islam addresses needs & weaknesses of Arab society Universal Elements of Islam Islamic beliefs yield universal appeal Islamic beliefs yield universal appeal Five PillarsFive Pillars

10 Question: Assess the influence of each of the Five Pillars on the spread of Islam. Assess the influence of each of the Five Pillars on the spread of Islam. What are the intended & un-intended consequences of these practices spiritually? culturally? globally?What are the intended & un-intended consequences of these practices spiritually? culturally? globally? the Kaba

11 Umayyad: an Arab Empire Consolidation & Division Muhammad died in 632 w/o appointing successor, creating a crisis Muhammad died in 632 w/o appointing successor, creating a crisis CaliphCaliph Position to be filled by Ali or Abu Bakr Position to be filled by Ali or Abu Bakr Abu Bakr = 1st Caliph Abu Bakr = 1st Caliph Led rapid expansion of Arab empireLed rapid expansion of Arab empire

12 Motives for Arab Conquests Arab warriors driven to conquest for wealth & glory rather than jihad Arab warriors driven to conquest for wealth & glory rather than jihad Weakness of the Adversaries Persia – weakened from war & manipulation Persia – weakened from war & manipulation Byzantium – weakened from war & resentful minority groups Byzantium – weakened from war & resentful minority groups

13 Succession Problem → Sunni-Shia Factionalism resulted from confusion over succession between Ali & Umayyad clan Factionalism resulted from confusion over succession between Ali & Umayyad clan Deep divisions: Deep divisions: SunniSunni ShiaShia

14 Umayyad Imperium Built extensive empire from Spain to Central Asia Built extensive empire from Spain to Central Asia Maintained control through Arab minority Maintained control through Arab minority

15 Converts & “People of the Book” Converts not treated as full citizens Converts not treated as full citizens “People of the book” taxed, but allowed to keep religions & communities intact “People of the book” taxed, but allowed to keep religions & communities intact

16 Umayyad Family & Gender Roles Women enjoyed stronger status under Muhammad’s leadership during the early years of Islam Women enjoyed stronger status under Muhammad’s leadership during the early years of Islam

17 Umayyad Decline Caused by: Caused by: 1.Alienated followers by becoming aloof, corrupt, & decadent 2.Failed to integrate non-Arabs & dissents ↳ Sparked revolt in Persia among Abbasid

18 Questions Assess the validity of the claim that Assess the validity of the claim that “The empire built from Umayyad conquests was Arab rather than Islamic.”

19 Abbasid: an Islamic Empire Signs of things to come: Signs of things to come: Brutal treatment of Umayyad → absolutistBrutal treatment of Umayyad → absolutist Capital in Baghdad → strong Persian influenceCapital in Baghdad → strong Persian influence Growing power of wazir → bureaucratizationGrowing power of wazir → bureaucratization Islamic Conversion Abbasid era saw full integration of citizens & converts Abbasid era saw full integration of citizens & converts

20 Town & Country Abbasid age saw urbanization & expansion of trade Abbasid age saw urbanization & expansion of trade Rural estates prospered: Rural estates prospered: Large estates – ayan, enriched warriorsLarge estates – ayan, enriched warriors Slave laborSlave labor

21 First Flowering of Learning Islamic civilization made key contributions in art, religion, law, philosophy, science, & math Islamic civilization made key contributions in art, religion, law, philosophy, science, & math GreeceGreece Global Connections Islam presents the unprecedented rise of backwater nomads to global empire Islam presents the unprecedented rise of backwater nomads to global empire

22 Abbasid: later in the Heartlands Key problems surface as early as 3 rd Abbasid caliph Key problems surface as early as 3 rd Abbasid caliph Imperial Extravagance Harun al-Rashid’s reign proved pivotal in extravagance & succession Harun al-Rashid’s reign proved pivotal in extravagance & succession Court factionalismCourt factionalism Rise of Turk mercenariesRise of Turk mercenaries

23 Imperial Breakdown Extravagance & succession disputes fed spiraling financial problems Extravagance & succession disputes fed spiraling financial problems Abbasid Family & Women Rise of harem & veil meant high class women were increasingly uneducated & secluded Rise of harem & veil meant high class women were increasingly uneducated & secluded Contrast w/ slavesContrast w/ slaves

24 Nomadic Incursions With caliph in disorder, Abbasid splintered into regional kingdoms With caliph in disorder, Abbasid splintered into regional kingdoms Buyids capture Baghdad in 945Buyids capture Baghdad in 945 Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad in 1055Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad in 1055

25 Questions Compare and contrast the Umayyad and Abbasid. Compare and contrast the Umayyad and Abbasid. Which is more significant? Why?Which is more significant? Why? Assess the validity of calling the later period of the Muslim empire, “Abbasid.”Assess the validity of calling the later period of the Muslim empire, “Abbasid.”

26 Impact of Christian Crusaders Series of Christian crusades attempt to capture holy land starting in 1096 Series of Christian crusades attempt to capture holy land starting in 1096 Europeans established series of small kingdoms in Eastern Med. until 1291Europeans established series of small kingdoms in Eastern Med. until 1291 Crusades had much larger impact on Europe by intensifying exchange Crusades had much larger impact on Europe by intensifying exchange

27 Age of Learning & Art Full Flowering of Persian Lit As Persians gained greater power, Persian language became language of high culture As Persians gained greater power, Persian language became language of high culture EX – history, poetry, mystical revelationsEX – history, poetry, mystical revelations

28 Achievements in Sciences Abbasid era established itself as most technologically & scientifically advanced Abbasid era established itself as most technologically & scientifically advanced Religious Trends & Expansion Contradictory religious trends reflect paths in society Contradictory religious trends reflect paths in society OrthodoxyOrthodoxy Sufi movementSufi movement

29 New Nomadic Invasion & Fall 13 th century dominated by Mongol invaders 13 th century dominated by Mongol invaders Baghdad & Abbasid fall in 1258Baghdad & Abbasid fall in 1258

30 Questions What seems to be the key in determining status and freedoms of women? What seems to be the key in determining status and freedoms of women? Support your answer with examples from the text.Support your answer with examples from the text.


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