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Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points. 14 Points listed in Speech Given to Congress Jan. 1918 10 Months Before Armistice 10 Months Before Armistice Idealism gives.

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Presentation on theme: "Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points. 14 Points listed in Speech Given to Congress Jan. 1918 10 Months Before Armistice 10 Months Before Armistice Idealism gives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points

2 14 Points listed in Speech Given to Congress Jan Months Before Armistice 10 Months Before Armistice Idealism gives Wilson moral leadership Idealism gives Wilson moral leadership Wilson’s ideas for lasting peace in Europe Wilson’s ideas for lasting peace in Europe

3 Background of this speech The only honest statement of war aims by a fighting country. Ulterior motives for France and Britain. The only honest statement of war aims by a fighting country. Ulterior motives for France and Britain. Based on Wilson’s progressive ideas of free trade, self-determination, and democracy. Based on Wilson’s progressive ideas of free trade, self-determination, and democracy.

4 3 Main Parts of the Speech Points 1-5 Eliminate the Cause of War and International Relations 1. No more secret treaties – response to Lenin 1. No more secret treaties – response to Lenin 2. Freedom of the seas (During War- Time) 2. Freedom of the seas (During War- Time) 3. Free trade (Create equal trading conditions 3. Free trade (Create equal trading conditions

5 Points 6-13 (Right of National Self-Determination and Territorial Claims) 6. Germany withdraws from occupied Russia 6. Germany withdraws from occupied Russia 8. France had lost Alsace-Lorraine during war, now France gets it back. 8. France had lost Alsace-Lorraine during war, now France gets it back. Ottoman empire is divided and placed in League of Nation trust (Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Syria) Ottoman empire is divided and placed in League of Nation trust (Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Syria)

6 Point 14 (most important to Pres. Wilson) A general association of nations to enforce peace, this foreshadows the League of Nations. A general association of nations to enforce peace, this foreshadows the League of Nations. (And after WWII the United Nations.) (And after WWII the United Nations.)

7 Wilson the Idealist? Speech contained high ideals It is not so much about self-interest as world interest. It is not so much about self-interest as world interest. Or is it Propaganda? A way to encourage Germany to surrender without losing too much. Or is it Propaganda? A way to encourage Germany to surrender without losing too much.

8 Opposition to the 14 Points Germany surrender on the basis of the 14 pts. Germany surrender on the basis of the 14 pts. Wilson consults no allies in Europe before giving the speech – France and Britain will make additions to 14 pts. Wilson consults no allies in Europe before giving the speech – France and Britain will make additions to 14 pts. British were against freedom of seas. British were against freedom of seas. French wanted Reparations. French wanted Reparations.

9 14 Points Speech Leads to Treaty of Versailles France France United Kingdom United Kingdom United States United States Italy Italy Japan Japan Belgium Belgium Brazil Brazil Canada Canada Australia Australia New Zealand New Zealand New Foundland New Foundland Greece Greece Guatemala Guatemala Haiti Haiti Honduras Honduras China China Cuba Cuba Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Liberia Liberia Nicaragua Nicaragua Panama Panama Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Siam Siam Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Note: What countries are not in attendance?

10 Treaty of Versailles The treaty that ended WWI The treaty that ended WWI The Big 4 The Big 4 U.S.A., France, United Kingdom, Italy U.S.A., France, United Kingdom, Italy Vs. Germany Vs. Germany

11 France Wants German “Blood”. Article 231 of the Treaty holds Germany solely responsible for the war. (War Guilt Clause) Article 231 of the Treaty holds Germany solely responsible for the war. (War Guilt Clause) Reparations = $32 Billion / Paid until Oct. 4, 2010 Reparations = $32 Billion / Paid until Oct. 4, 2010

12 Treaty of Versailles Humiliates Germany Germans don’t believe they should have to accept responsibility for the war Germans don’t believe they should have to accept responsibility for the war High Reparations and war losses lead to economic problems. High Reparations and war losses lead to economic problems. Loss of colonial holdings and industry leads to economic problems Loss of colonial holdings and industry leads to economic problems

13

14 Germany loses land

15 Treaty of Versailles America never signs treaty – Senate would not confirm America never signs treaty – Senate would not confirm - People felt the League of Nations would force America into agreements not in best interest - German-Americans felt punishment was harsh

16 Germany’s Humiliation leads to…. The end of the German government in The end of the German government in And the rise of a new government….. And the rise of a new government….. Adolph Hitler resolves to overturn the Treaty Adolph Hitler resolves to overturn the Treaty

17 Hitlers Speech “He who will not be a hammer must be an anvil. An anvil we are today, and that anvil will be beaten until out of the anvil we fashion once more a hammer, a German sword.” “He who will not be a hammer must be an anvil. An anvil we are today, and that anvil will be beaten until out of the anvil we fashion once more a hammer, a German sword.”

18 In the End…. Germany begins to rebuild looking for revenge Germany begins to rebuild looking for revenge France believes it is going to get revenge France believes it is going to get revenge England wants a stronger Germany to balance France England wants a stronger Germany to balance France U.S.A. wants lasting peace. U.S.A. wants lasting peace. Nobody gets what they want! Nobody gets what they want!

19 Peace is a Failure The harsh terms encouraged by France Result in WWII The harsh terms encouraged by France Result in WWII U.S. Senate fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles (separate peace is made) U.S. Senate fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles (separate peace is made) League of Nations takes shape w/o U.S.A. League of Nations takes shape w/o U.S.A.


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