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Kiev – established by Vikings

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2 Kiev – established by Vikings
Strong Byzantine influences Conquered by Mongols in late 1230’s Princes of Muscovy worked with Mongols to gain power Ivan III (the Great) stopped tribute to Mongols in 1480

3 Ivan III established strong centralized government
Married niece of last Byzantine emperor – took title of Czar (Tsar) Adopted Byzantine double-headed eagle as state emblem Adopted pomp and ceremony of Byzantine court – called Russia “Third Rome”

4 Ivan III absorbed independent Novgorod (tied to Poland-Lithuania) into new state
To settle new territories, Ivan III used free peasant pioneers (Cossacks) Cossacks played large role in the expansion of Russia Focus of expansion was to the east - Furs

5 The Cossacks

6 The Growth of Russia from 1300 to 1584

7 Russia- Early Contact with the West
Western merchants established trade contacts Italian artists & architects imported for royal and church buildings Russia looked to the West as example for court life Russia selectively copied Western culture / commerce

8 Competition with nobility (Boyars) for power
Czar took on role as head of church Struggle with Boyars reached climax under rule of Ivan IV Ivan IV

9 Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Began rule at age 16 Married into Romanov Boyar clan Suspected Boyars of killing his wife Threatened to abdicate unless given power to deal with Boyars and gain land called Oprichnina (“land apart”)

10 Ivan IV broke up estates of Boyars
Created new aristocratic class called Oprichniki Used Oprichniki to terrorize population Depredations made Russia weak – open to outside invasions Ivan turned on Oprichniki

11 Ivan IV died (1584) leaving no heir
Civil War ensued along with outside invasions Mikhail Romanov elected Czar in 1613 Romanovs would rule to 1917

12 Ivan cradles his dead son

13 Peter the Great Peter developed fascination for Western technology
Took throne in 1689 Established a policy of rapid and forced modernization and Westernization Copied many aspects of Western military Peter the Great

14 Established the “Table of Ranks,” permitting nobles to move ahead based on merit
Abolished the Terem, the Russian equivalent of the harem Encouraged the mixing of the sexes in towns and cities built new capital on the Baltic Sea, St. Petersburg

15 Russia and the West Peter adopted only that which did not interfere with the autocratic state Westernization caused hostility on part of the populace Russia would continue love-hate relationship with the West

16 Catherine II (the Great)
Catherine the Great Married Peter III Peter murdered – Catherine succeeded to throne as Catherine II (1762 – 1796) Ruled with support of nobility and military Selective Westernization – interested in the Enlightenment Catherine II (the Great)

17 Continued expansion of Russia into the Crimea and Siberia
Partitioned Poland – Poland not free again until 1918 Absorbed large Jewish population Enacted harsh policies on treatment of serfs

18 Russian Expansion 1700 to 1741

19 Expansion east brought contact with Ottomans and Safavids
Took control of Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia Cossacks conducted campaign against ethnic peoples of Siberia (American west?)

20 Russia COT In Russia , the centralization against the Mongols led to the development of the absolutist monarchy of the tsars and the “Westernization” campaign of gaining territory including the essential warm water ports. Feudalism, however, would be increasingly cemented by Russian forces to gain furthered agricultural productivity.

21 Labor Serfs could be bought and sold
A law code in 1649 imposed rigid caste-like structure over Russia’s labor force It restricted both their occupational and their geographical mobility Artisans and merchants had to register their children into their father’s occupation It also established a hierarchy of nobles, making 52 Boyar families the top class

22 Industrialization began under Peter the Great
Factory owners could buy serfs, prostitutes, beggars, criminals, and orphans Despite the emphasis put on industry, Russia’s factories never rivaled those of Europe

23 Russia COT 1450-1750 Changes Continuities
St. Petersburg (Window to the West) warm water port Tsars centralized Absolute authority Women interacting with men in cities, removal of Tarem, Catherine enlightened despot Westernization campaign- removal beards, development of gunpowder weaponry, table of ranks, first navy Campaign of “eastward” imperialism by Cossaks led to destruction of indigenous populations Moscow still politically, economically and culturally important Role of Orthodox church Still patriarchal Harsh punishment of serfs Jews in pogroms feudalism persitsed Still predominantly agricultural Furs still important revenue

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