Presentation on theme: "Islam=name of the religion Muslim=someone who practices Islam"— Presentation transcript:
1Islam=name of the religion Muslim=someone who practices Islam Islamic CivilizationIslam=name of the religionMuslim=someone who practices Islam
2The Arabian Peninsula Very harsh desert environment. Very little water The people there become very fierce as they compete for scarce resources like water
3Villages growVillages grow up around an oasis- places where water naturally comes up out of the groundVillages along trade routes between Africa, Asia, and Europe grow and prosper
4Arabs Most people there are nomadic shepherds called Bedouins Bedouins are polytheisticBedouin people are often called Arabs, especially after they cease being nomadic
5IshmaelAccording to legend, the ancestor of the Arabs is Ismael, Abraham’s illegitimate son by his wife’s slaveArabs therefore claim the same origins as the Hebrews
6Muhammad (Mohammed, Muhammad) Muhammad is born into this harsh Arab/Bedouin culture around 570 AD.He is born in Mecca and becomes a wealthy merchantHe is famous for being a wise man and very spiritual
7Gabriel visits Muhammad One day Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel who tells him that Muhammad is to be God’s prophetGabriel recites the Qur’an (Koran) to Muhammad to memorize since Muhammad is illiterate
8Islam’s prophetsMuslims believe that Muhammad is the last prophet, but not the only one.Previous prophets include all the Jewish and Christian prophets – like Moses and even Jesus (they do not believe he is God’s son)
9Koran (Qur’an)The Qur’an is Islam’s holy book. It is word-for-word, the words Gabriel told Muhammad to learnAlso is a book of the prophet Muhammad’s sayings called the Hadith and a book detailing his actions called the Sunnah.Together, these books are the guiding documents for MuslimsBTW, the Qur’an is written in Arabic, and many Muslims believe to truly understand it, you must read it in Arabic
10Islam Means “submission” (to God) People who practice Islam are called Muslims, which means “one who submits” (to God)
11Five PillarsMuslims believe in five core duties as written in the Qur’an
12Shahada Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Accepting God Say: “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet”SalahPrayerMuslims must face Mecca five times daily and prayZakatAlmsMeans giving to the poorSawmFastingMuslims must fast during Ramadan to atone for sinsHajjPilgramageAble-bodied Muslims who can afford it must travel to Mecca
13“People of the Book”Christianity and Judaism are viewed as a pre-cursor to IslamThey are allowed to practice their faith because of this, though they are encouraged to convert to IslamIf they do not convert, they must pay a tax (jizyah “tribute”)
14Muslims persecutedThe small Muslim movement is persecuted from Mecca and forced to flee 200 miles to the village of Medina (hijira)In the year 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca and took the city.He spared the people there, establishing a pattern of treating conquered people with tolerance
15Islam spreads Islam quickly spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula Get out your mapsLabel the colored section “Islam during Muhammad’s life”
16Muhammad dies Muhammad died in 632 AD In his farewell speech, he warned the Muslim community against returning to pre-Islamic practicesHowever, he did not give instructions for who should succeed him as leaderMasjid-Al-Nabawi – Tomb of the Prophet
17JerusalemAmong the lands the Muslims conquer are parts of the Byzantine Empire- like JersualemJerusalem is the holiest city in Judaism and ChristianityThe oldest and possibly best know mosque in the world is the Dome of the Rock. They built it on the same hill as the King Solomon’s Temple- the holiest Jewish site.
19Battle of Tours732 AD a Muslim army comprised of Moors from North Africa invaded FranceThey were stopped at the Battle of Tours by a Frankish general named Charles (later Charles Martel)The battle is seen as preserving Christianity in Europe
20Caliphs Muhammad’s successors, called caliphs, were elected They worked to expand Islam through conquering new territories
21Islam Continues to Spread Under Muhammad’s successors, Islam continued to spread, eventually including all the land from Spain to the Indus River, and even further east to China and IndonesiaOn your map, label this section “Extent of Islam”
23AliAli, was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. He became caliph, but was assassinated.
24Umayyad CaliphateAfter the first 4 caliphs, the Umayyad Caliphate became the dominant force in IslamThe Umayyad's moved the capital to Damascus (modern Syria) and began to act more like European (Byzantine) rulersUmayyad Mosque (Great Mosque of Damascus)
25HusseinThere were some Muslims who believed the Umayyad’s were corrupting IslamOne of those was Ali’s son (Muhammad’s grandson), HusseinHe refused to pay allegiance to the Umayyad.At the Battle of Karbala, Hussein was beheadedHe is a martyr to Shi’a Muslims
26Shi’aThe people who were loyal to Hussein believed that the caliph should be a descendent of MuhammadThey are called Shi’a (Shiite) – means “Party of Ali”Almost all of them live in South-east Iraq and IranKarbala is a holy site to which they pilgrimage today
27SunniThose who remained loyal to the Umayyad are called Sunni (means Majority)Sunni make up over 85% of Muslims today
28Sufism The Sufi branch also broke away during the Umayyads Sufis are generally seen as practicing a mystical type of Islam in which they seek to know only Allah in all thingsThis is a very small, but highly dedicated sect of Islam
29Baghdad Baghdad became the capital The city would eventually have a population of 1 million at a time when Paris and London counted less than 50,000Baghdad was the center of learning
30UniversitiesOne of the earliest universities was founded in Baghdad. These centers for learning contributed to learning and many new Islamic inventions.
31Mathematic Advances Arab scholars made advances in math and astronomy They invented AlgebraAnd, modern numerals like 1, 2, 3, 4… are Arabic inventions
32MedicineMuslim physicians contributed to modern medicine by discovering the causes of certain diseases like SmallpoxAl Razi, the most famous Muslim physician, even realized that patients recover better in clean environments
33Preserve classical learning Muslim scholars preserved and translated many of the Greek and Roman classic textsEventually, as contact with the Christians in Western Europe increased, that knowledge would pass back to Europe
34Islam TodayGet out your book to page 283, use the pie charts to answer the following questions with your group. Turn in your answers.How many Muslims are there in the world?In which regions are Muslims a majority (more than 50%) or plurality (more than any other group)?If India’s population is 1.1 billion, how many Muslims live there?If the United States’ population is 3 million, how many Muslims live there?