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China Reunites Chapter 12, Section 1, page 408. Rebuilding China’s Empire – page 409.

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Presentation on theme: "China Reunites Chapter 12, Section 1, page 408. Rebuilding China’s Empire – page 409."— Presentation transcript:

1 China Reunites Chapter 12, Section 1, page 408

2 Rebuilding China’s Empire – page 409

3 Han Dynasty ended A.D. 220 about 300 years of warlords Sui Dynasty – reunited China under one emperor in A.D. 581 – Wendi general and emperor who founded the Sui Dynasty – Yangdi – Grand Canal → helped economy – an organized way in which people produce sell and buy things (rebellion)

4 The Tang Dynasty – page 411 Tang Dynasty – in power from A.D. 618 to A.D. 907 – “period of brilliance” – Changan – capital – heavy reforms – civil service exams, land reforms – Empress Wu – the only woman in Chinese history to rule a country on her own

5 The Song Dynasty – page 411 Song Dynasty – ruled from A.D. 960 to A.D – great period of cultural achievement and prosperity – Reformed civil service examination

6 The Song Dynasty – page 411

7 Buddhism Spreads to China – page 413 harsh times → people looking for relief from suffering Buddhism takes root with Tang support Later, the Tang returned to ideas of Confucius to reduce the popularity of Buddhism in China. – connections to the family (Buddhist monks not allowed to marry)

8 New Confucian Ideas – page 414 neo-Confucianism – this life just as important as the next – criticized Buddhism but actually picked up some Buddhist and Daoist beliefs – crosses the line between an ethical belief system and a religion

9 Scholar-Officials – page 414 civil service exams = a bureaucracy based on a merit system – fair? – Students preparing for civil service examinations in China never did physical work. – harsh study habits

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11 Chinese Society Chapter 12, Section 2, page 416

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13 A Growing Economy – page 417 Tang provided stability = advancement in agriculture – farming improvements irrigation improvements improved kinds of rice – roads and waterways = trade growth – trade items silk porcelain – a material made of of clay and baked at high temperatures tea paper steel population boom

14 New Inventions – page 418 coal and steel – iron + coal = steel (Tang dynasty) – steel used in weapons, stoves, farming equipment, drills, steel chains, nails, and sewing needles printing – A.D. 600s – early attempts – Pi Sheng – invented movable type for printing Diamond Sutra first printed book

15 Other Chinese Inventions – page 420 gunpowder – fire lance rudders sails compass and much, much more

16 Art and Literature – page 420 Chinese literature during the Tang dynasty often celebrated nature. – Li Bo popular poet during the Tang dynasty. – Duo Fu – poet who wrote about the suffering of the common people painting in the Song dynasty – landscapes with open spaces – portrayal of ideas – calligraphy – art of writing characters beautifully

17 Chapter 12, Section 2 Questions Write the following questions and them answer them. 1.What products were traded along the Silk Road? 2.What product helped the Chinese improve weapons, farm equipment, and much more? 3.What did Tang poetry often focus on? 4.Which of the inventions mentioned in this chapter do you think is most important? Why?

18 The Mongols in China Chapter 12, Section 3, page 423

19 Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to: describe how Genghis Khan built the Mongol Empire, which stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea. discuss how the Mongols conquered China and created a new dynasty that traded with the rest of China.

20 The Mongols – page 424 Mongols – steppes – the wide rolling grassy plains found in Asia – nomadic herders of sheep, goats, cattle, horses – tribes – groups of families loosely joined together

21 The Mongols – page 424 The Mongols were known for their ability to ride horses and wage war. – harsh surroundings – nomadic lifestyle – tribal warfare – experts with the bow

22 Who Was Genghis Khan? – page 425 Genghis Khan – Temujin – rough childhood – united Mongols and conquered vast amounts of territory – A.D – named Genghis Khan which means “strong ruler” – military innovations leaders chosen for their abilities different way of waging war (terror – violence meant to scare people into surrendering) – died 1227

23 The Mongol Empire – page 426 The Mongol Empire was the largest continuous land empire in history. – empire divided among his four sons – expansion continued – Pax Mongolica spread of ideas trade – Silk Road revived

24 The Mongol Empire – page 426

25 Mongol Rule in China – page 428 Kublai Khan – grandson of Genghis Khan – founded the Yuan dynasty (lasted about 100 years) in China – challenges Mongol language and laws different Chinese resentment of outside rule ( dominated by Mongol leaders ) – Marco Polo – famous European traveler to China

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27 The Ming Dynasty Chapter 12, Section 4, page 430

28 Objectives After this lesson, students should be able to: explain how Ming rulers strengthened China’s government and established peace. describe how China sent fleets of ships to other parts of Asia as well as to East Africa.

29 The Rise of the Ming – page 431 Yuan dynasty declined Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming dynasty – took name Hong Wu – cruel and distrustful – son, Yong Le moved capital to Beijing had Forbidden City built

30 How Did the Ming Reform China? – page 432 restored the civil service exam census – a count of the number of people; taken to accurately collect taxes reforestation paved roads rebuilt infrastructure advances in agriculture

31 Chinese Culture – page 432 novels – long fictional stories drama

32 China Explores the World – page 433 Zheng He – a voyager during the Ming Dynasty – traveled to India, Southwest Asia, and as far as East Africa – trade flourished – Confucian conflicts → suspension of travels and closing of China off from the rest of the world one exception Portugal made contact with China in 1514 – missionaries – Jesuits – exchange of ideas – clocks, scientific instruments, eyeglasses

33 Why Did the Ming Fall? – page corruption rampant Ming dynasty fell in 1644 to the Manchu dynasty


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