Presentation on theme: "German Ambitions in WWI Mittleuropa Destroy French Power Exclude Britain from Continent Push Russia as Far East as Possible Create German Sphere of Influence."— Presentation transcript:
German Ambitions in WWI Mittleuropa Destroy French Power Exclude Britain from Continent Push Russia as Far East as Possible Create German Sphere of Influence in Central Europe. –Annex French territory rich in iron ore –Customs union with Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, and others Use Europe as Base For Global Empire?
American War Aims Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points Freedom of the Seas (Point 2). National Self-determination (Points 7-13) Non-Discriminatory International Trade (Open Colonial Markets and Colonial Raw Materials to all nations on equal basis) (Point 3) Restructure the International System By Creating International Organizations (Point 14).
Signing of the Versailles Treaty, June 28, 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles The War Outcome
Impact of WWI on Power Structure British Power Severely Weakened United States Emerges from War as the Clearly Dominant Power Germany Defeated? U.S. Attempts to Restructure International System –League of Nations –National Self-determination –Little Progress on Trade and Colonial Objectives
The League of Nations “What we seek is the reign of law, based upon the consent of the governed, and sustained by the organized opinion of mankind.” Woodrow Wilson
The Logic of Collective Security Commitment to Resist Aggression By Any Country Against Any Country at Any Time All Countries Must Promise to Send Troops. The Point is to Deter War: If All Countries Always Resist Aggression, Aggressors Will Always Face Overwhelming Superiority. No Aggressor Will Ever Believe it Can Win a War Against All. No Country Will Initiate War.
Why No Peace? 1. Versailles Treaty Was Too Punitive to Have Legitimacy in Germany. --War Guilt Clause --Reparations; $31 Billion, about 125% of German GNP --Territorial Losses --Military Disarmament --Treaty Handed to German Government as Fait Accompli. Peace Depends Upon Treaty Enforcement--Power
2. Treaty Not Enforced --Britain Thought its Terms were Too Harsh. --France Thought its Terms Not Harsh Enough. --United States Simply Not Interested. --League of Nations Without the U.S. Was Too Weak to Enforce Treaty. Germany Able To Undermine Critical Elements of Treaty
Germany: The Hossbach Memorandum (November 1937) Lebensraum: Autarky impossible Trade controlled by British Navy, thus no solution German Territorial Expansion Necessary
The Second World War Begins March 1938–March 1939: Austria, Czechoslovakia September 1, 1939: Germany Invades Poland September 3, 1939: Britain, France Declare War on Germany. May 10, 1940: Germany Invades France June 14, 1940: Nazis Enter Paris. June 22, 1940: French Armistice. July 10, 1940: Battle of Britain Begins.
The U.S.: The Atlantic Charter (August 14, 1941) National Self- Determination Free and Equal Access to World Markets and Raw Materials Freedom of the Seas Arms Control, Disarmament, International Organization
The Postwar American System Political Components –Populate World with Democracies (De-Colonization) –Create Rule of Law Based International System (The United Nations) Economic Components –Eliminate Colonial-Based Trade System (Decolonization) –Create Open, Non-discriminatory, Market-based international Economy (The GATT) Interaction of the Two Components
Power Transition Decline of British Power in Early 20 th Century. Rising German and American Power; Both are Dissatisfied Nations. WWI and WWII Were Systemic Wars Fought to Destroy British System and Create an Alternative in its Place. The International System in Which We Live Originates in these Wars.