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Presentation on theme: " Larry J. Siegel Joe Morris Northwestern State University Cherly Gary North Central Texas College Lisa Ann Zilney Montclair State."— Presentation transcript:

1 Larry J. Siegel Joe Morris Northwestern State University Cherly Gary North Central Texas College Lisa Ann Zilney Montclair State Chapter 11 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

2 Learning Objectives Identify the components of the correctional institution system. Discuss some of the most significant problems facing the correctional system. Articulate how the first penal institutions developed in Europe. Explain how William Penn revolutionized corrections. Compare the New York and Pennsylvania prison models. Chart the development of penal reform. List the purpose of jails and know about jail populations. Be familiar with the term “new generation jail” Classify the different types of federal and state penal institutions. Discuss prison population trends.

3 History of Correctional Institutions 1557 Bridewell workhouse built to hold those convicted of relatively minor offenses Incarceration did not become the norm until 19 th century 10 th century England prisons used to detain debtors, unemployed, or those awaiting trial First penal institutions were devoid of proper care, food, or medical treatment

4 The Origin of Corrections in the United States Modern American correctional system had its origin in Pennsylvania under leadership of William Penn Quaker influence

5 The Auburn System Tier system Congregate system Three classes of prisoners were created: Those in solitary Those allowed labor as a form of recreation Those who worked and ate together during the day and separated at night

6 The Pennsylvania System Each inmate in a single cell Classifications were abolished because isolation would prevent inmates from contaminating each other Built in a circle with cells placed along its circumference Penance

7 PrisonStructureLivingActivityDiscipline Auburn System Tiered CellsCongregateGroup Work Silence, Harsh punishment Pennsylvania System Single cells set in semicircle IsolatedIn-cell work, Bible Study Silence, Harsh Punishment Auburn vs. Pennsylvania System

8 Corrections in the 19 th Century Similar to today Development of prison industry: Contract system Convict-lease system Prison farms

9 Development of Parole Transportation common sentence for theft offenders Service abandoned after revolution Ticket of leave Zebulon Brockway

10 Prisons in the 20 th Century Time of contrast in the U.S. prison system Advocate of reform, rehabilitation, education, religion Development of specialized prisons Industrial prisons for hard-core inmates Agricultural prisons for non dangerous offenders Institutions for criminally insane Opposition by organized labor restricts the use of prison labor and sale of prison made goods

11 Contemporary Correctional Institutions Prisoners’ rights movement Violence within the corrections system a national concern Traditional correctional rehabilitation efforts viewed as having failed prompted reconsideration of incapacitating criminals

12 Jails Detain accused offenders who cannot make bail Hold convicted offenders awaiting sentence Confinement for those convicted of misdemeanors Hold probationers and parolees arrested for violations and waiting for a hearing House felons when state prisons are overcrowded

13 Black Hispanic White Jail Populations by Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2008 19901994199820022006 0 Year 1,000 750 500 250 Number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents

14 Adult males Adult females Juveniles Jail Population by Gender, 1990-2008 19901994199820022006 0 Year 600,000 400,000 200,000 Number of jail inmates (one-day count)

15 Jail Conditions Services not sufficiently regulated No unified national policy on what constitutes adequate conditions Among the most dilapidated and under funded confinement facilities in the U.S.

16 New Generation Jails Use of pods or living areas rather than linear/intermittent surveillance model Allows for continuous observation Safer environment

17 Types of Prison Maximum Super Maximum (only in some states) MediumMinimum

18 Alternative Correctional Institutions Prison farms and camps Shock incarceration in boot camps Community correctional facilities Private prisons

19 Prison Farms and Camps Primarily in the South and the West Some famous for abuse and mistreatment of prisoners

20 Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps For youthful, first-time offenders Military discipline and physical training Scared straight Some have educational and training elements Cost is no lower than traditional incarceration High failure rates Reduce prison overcrowding

21 Community Correctional Facilities Bridge gap between institutional living and community Offer specialized treatment Used as intermediate sanction

22 Private Prisons Operated by private firms as business enterprises for profit Expectations specified in contract with government Some research shows recidivism rates lower Tend to take the best prisoners Private and public prisons cost about the same to operate, but privates are cheaper to build Unresolved legal issues: mistreatment of prisoners, use of deadly force, immunity from lawsuits Effects on inmates: sent far from home, isolation, difficulty of reintegration

23 Inmate Populations Reflects common traits of arrestees held in local jails Young, single, poorly educated, male, and minority group members. Number of women incarcerated is increasing at a faster rate than males Many inmates suffer from multiple social, psychological, emotional, and health problems Prison populations continue to increase despite a decade long drop in the crime rate

24 Growth Trends New admissions for drug offenses Mandatory sentences Truth in sentencing laws Policy decisions driven by political concerns

25 Incarceration Rates 1980198919982007 0 Year 600 500 300 100 Number of offenders per 100,000 population 400 200

26 Future Trends Population may be maxing out Budget cutbacks may halt expansion Public may question strict incarceration

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