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The Evolution and Adaptations of Deep Sea Animals Matt Brennan.

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution and Adaptations of Deep Sea Animals Matt Brennan."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution and Adaptations of Deep Sea Animals Matt Brennan

2 What is the deep ocean? Aphotic zone – Depths > 200m Lack of food – Falling organic matter Very high pressures – Between ,000 atmospheres Low temperatures – 3-10 degrees Celsius Lack of oxygen

3 “The Deep”

4 Research Objectives Investigate how deep sea Anglerfish (Ceratioidei) and Macropinna microstoma have adapted in order to survive in harsh environments. Investigate possible phyogenetic relationships between Anglerfish in the family Ceratioidei

5 Anglerfish - Lophiiformes Lophiiformes Primitive Lophiiformes – Shallow water – Bony fish – structure of the first dorsal-fin spine - bearing a terminal bait or esca – The teeth in the jaws are numerous, small 322 living species – 5 Diverse sub-orders

6 Anglerfish - Ceratioidei Ceratioidei – Sexual dimorphism Male dwarf Loss of illicium Denticular teeth Female - Small eyes Worldwide distribution – Depth > 300m most species-rich vertebrate taxon within the bathypelagic zone

7 Bioluminescence Chemical reaction where energy is released in the form of light Bioluminescence in ceratioid – escae w/ bacteria filled vesicles Used to – lure predators – Attract males watch?v=UXl8F-eIoiM Solution to Lack of light?

8 Sexual Parasitism – Male Ceretioidei large well-developed eyes Loss of illicium relatively huge nostrils – Sensing female pheromone Denticular teeth – Loss normal teeth after metamorphosis – jaws for grasping and holding Solution to Lack of food?

9 Male Denticular Teeth Denticular teeth – Loss of normal teeth after metamorphosis – Pincer jaws for grasping and holding – Upper and lower jaws attacked permanently by tissues – Obligate parisitism Solution to lack of food?

10 Macropinna microstoma - Barreleye Solutions to light and food: – barrel-shaped, tubular eyes – Look up towards sun/surface Maximize light Increase contrast perception – Can see prey against light on surface Sensitivity to bioluminescence – Small mouth Accurate Uses eye movement to follow prey Transparent shield covering head – Protection from prey JU – watch this JU

11 Tubular eyes Evolutionary change resulted in changes in locations of muscle insertions – Obliquus muscles pull the eye forward and down, and the rectus superior and rectus internus returning it to an upright position. Solution to catching prey?

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13 Conclusions Lots of research needs to be done – Relativelely new science! – Environmental factors are harsh for humans too! – Lack of live specimen A need for the new Generation scientists

14 Works cited Robison, B. and K.R. Reisenbichler (2008). Macropinna microstoma and the paradox of its tubular eyes. Copeia, 4: Robison, B.H., K.R. Reisenbichler, J.C. Hunt, and S.H.D. Haddock (2003). Light production by the arm tips of the deep-sea cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Biological Bulletin, 205: 102–109. Maddison, D. R. and K.-S. Schulz (eds.) The Tree of Life Web Project. Internet address:


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