Presentation on theme: "Bacteria and Viruses. Bacteria Prokaryotes are the oldest living things on Earth. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have membrane-bound."— Presentation transcript:
Bacteria and Viruses
Bacteria Prokaryotes are the oldest living things on Earth. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotes are divided into two major groups: –Domain Archaea –Domain Bacteria
Archaea Found in many places Structurally very different from bacteria
Bacteria Most known prokaryotes are members of this domain One square inch of skin is host to over 100,000 bacteria!
Bacterial Structure -no membrane-bound organelles, but do have many internal structures -Have genetic material in the form of DNA -Often have small extra loops of DNA called plasmids. -Have ribosomes
Obtaining Energy and Nutrients Bacteria differ in how they obtain energy and nutrients Grouping prokaryotes based on their energy source separates them into photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs.
Photoautotrophs Get their energy from sunlight through photosynthesis Includes purple sulfur and nonsulfer bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a major component of the plankton that floats in the ocean.
Chemoautotrophs The only organisms that can get their energy from inorganic sources. They use molecules that contain sulfur or nitrogen and simple organic molecules to obtain energy.
Heterotrophs Most prokaryotes are heterotrophs and get both their energy and their nutrients from other organisms. Most absorb their nutrients from dead organisms, but some are parasites or pathogens.
Reproduction and Adaptation Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission; exchange genetic material through conjugation, transformation, and transduction; and survive harsh conditions by forming endospores.
Binary Fission Prokaryotes usually reproduce asexually by binary fission. A single cell divides into two identical new cells. Mutations do occur during prokaryotic reproduction, and new forms emerge frequently.
Genetic Recombination There are 3 ways in which prokaryotes can form new genetic combinations. –Conjugation- two bacteria exchange genetic material. –Transformation- bacteria take up DNA fragments from their environment. –Transduction- genetic material is transferred by a virus.
Endospore formation Endospore = thick-walled structures formed by bacteria to survive harsh conditions. Can survive boiling, radiation, and acid. Show no signs of life and can be revived after hundreds of years.