2Background Peter Lidington History teacher for 25 years Head of History at Clifton College, BristolOCR GCSE Examiner for 23 yearsTeam Leader for 16 yearsSenior Team Leader for 2 years
3OCR Modern World History (A971) 55000 candidates (35000 Germany depth study)200 examinersConsistent/Standardised approach to marking is essential.
4A971/11: Basic PointsKnow what you have to do before entering the exam room:The paper has 2 parts – Part 1 & Part 2 (2 hours)Part 1 consists of 3 sections:Section A, 1919 – 1939Section B, – 1975Section C,Answer questions from just ONE of these sectionsPart 2 is the Germany depth study.
5From the section you choose answer Question 1 (cartoon based - 15 marks) and ONE other question (20 marks)Part 2 – Depth Study: GermanyAnswer Question 4 (source-based) and ONE other question. (20 marks each)NB Large numbers of candidates answered questions from more than one section in Part 1 and all questions in Part 2 in the recent January exam.
6Part I: Section A 1919 - 1939 3 topic areas: The Treaty of Versailles and its effects.The League of Nations.The collapse of peace & the lead-in to the Second World War in the 1930’s.One question on each topic area.
7Question 1a: Source – based (cartoon) 7 marks What is the message of the cartoon? Use the cartoon details and your own knowledge to explain your answer.Key = getting the main message – without this the maximum mark possible is 3.
8What is the message of this cartoon What is the message of this cartoon? Use the details of the cartoon and your own knowledge to support your answer
9Message:There will be another war in the future.Peace will not last.What has been decided at the Conference will not work.It is not about the effects of the Treaty on GermanyEg Germany has been harshly treated. (Level 2 only- 3marks)But contextual knowledge support must be about how the harsh terms of the TOV would lead to war.
10Example:The message of this cartoon is that peace will not last.(level 3 : 4 marks). This is indicated by the caption saying that the child is ‘future cannon fodder’ implying that peace will not last beyond (Level 45 marks). The cartoon is saying that many thought that the terms imposed on Germany in the TOV, such as the severe military restrictions which limited the army to 100,000 men, were too harsh and would make Germany want revenge in the near future.(Level 5 : 7 marks)
12Message:Without the USA the LON is weak/incomplete and will collapse/fail. (Level 3 : 4 marks)Source support:This is shown by the figure of Uncle Sam, representing the USA, lying against the keystone which is missing from the centre of the bridge. (Level 4 : 5 marks)Contextual knowledge:When the League was formed, the USA refused to join leaving it without the most powerful country in the world and, therefore, without the strength to act effectively as an international peace-keeping organisation. (Level 5 : 7 marks)
13Question 1b : 8 marksA more general question on the same topic area as the cartoon.The key to success is using supported explanations of valid reasons.Identification of reasons without explanation and/or description of events/factors = maximum 4 marks.ONE explained reason = 5 – 6 marks.More than one explained reason = 7 – 8 marks.You can get full marks for just 2 developed explanations.
14Explain why it was difficult for the ‘Big 3’ to reach agreement at the Paris Peace Conference. [8 marks]Identification/description of reasons: eg they each had different aims; describes what each wanted – revenge for Clemenceau, 14 Points for Wilson, a just punishment for Lloyd George.But NO explanation or comparison of reasonsMax. 4 marks
15What is explanation?‘There was disagreement among the ‘Big 3’ as to the outcome of the Conference. Clemenceau thought it necessary to cripple Germany for all the destruction of land and industry suffered by France whereas Lloyd George wanted to protect the British Empire and to impose a just punishment so that Germany would not seek revenge in the future. (5 marks) This is why Clemenceau wanted such high reparations and the splitting up of German territory while Lloyd George favoured a smaller financial penalty and severe restrictions on the German navy. (6 marks)
16The same principles of supported explanations apply to part b answers in questions 2, 3, 5 and 6. The only difference is in the number of marks available: One explained reason = 4 – 5 marksTwo or more explained reasons = 6 marks
17Questions 2,3,5 and 6The style and structure of all these questions are the same.The way to answer these questions is the same.Remember: you only answer either question 2 or question 3 and either question 5 or question 6.3 parts to each question:4 marks6 marks10 marks
18Example: (a)What were Hitler’s aims in foreign policy? [4 marks] Do not write an introductory sentence or two (or more)!Do not describe what he did in his foreign policy.Do use bullet pointsEg - to gain living space (lebensraum)- to destroy the TOV- to unite all German-speaking people- to destroy CommunismOne mark for each point.
19You can get a second mark for supporting detail such as: - to unite all German-speaking people such as those in the Polish Corridor and the Sudetenland. (2 marks)
20Describe how the LON tried to improve living and working conditions around the world in the 1920’s.Again, use bullet points/short sentences.Eg. – the LON worked hard to get refugees back home (plus an example for 2nd mark)- the ILO banned lead from paint- the LON worked to get rid of diseases such as cholera, smallpox, leprosy, dysentry.....In this last example, we allowed 1 mark for each valid disease! (Jan. 2011)
21Part c: ‘The Treaty of Versailles was unfair on Germany Part c: ‘The Treaty of Versailles was unfair on Germany.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. The key factor is to produce a balanced answer which explains agreement and disagreement.If you only deal with one side, ie. your answer only shows how you agree or disagree with the statement, the maximum mark you can get is 6.As soon as you explain how the TOV was both fair and unfair on Germany the lowest mark you can get is 7.Aim for 2 explained reasons (at least) for each side of the argument = Level 4 : 8 or 9 marks.
22Example:The TOV was unfair on Germany because the Germans did not believe that they had lost the war. In 19 19, many Germans did not understand how bad Germany’s military situation was at the end of the war. They believed they had simply agreed to a ceasefire and, therefore, should be at the Conference to negotiate rather than being treated as a defeated nation. They were not represented and were forced to accept a harsh settlement – the ‘Diktat’. [Level 3 : 4 marks] + another explained reason of unfair [L3 : 5 or 6 marks]
23However, Germany was operating double standards However, Germany was operating double standards. Their call for fairer treatment did not fit with the harsh way they treated Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Therefore, the imposition of reparations and territorial losses on Germany was fair. [Level 4: 7 marks] + another explained reason of fair. [Level 4: 8 or 9 marks]
24Level 5 : 10 marksThere is ONE mark available for evaluation of ‘how far’ the TOV was unfair on Germany.This must add something more to the answer than just repeating what has already been stated and also cannot be a stock concluding sentence:Eg ‘Therefore it is obvious that the TOV was more unfair than fair on Germany’.Remember, you can score 9 marks just for explaining 2 reasons on either side of the argument.
25Depth Study: GermanyAnswer Question 4 (source-based & 3 parts – a, b, c) and either Question 5 or Question 6.Question 4 will often have the same style of question as Question 1a so the way to answer it is exactly the same!Eg What is the message of this cartoon?This was the case in June 2010 & January 2011 (Question 4c)Questions 5 & 6 are exactly the same style as Questions 2 & 3 so the same principles apply again.
26Question 4: Other types of question asked. Why was this poster/picture/source published?How useful is this source as evidence of …. ?How far does this source prove that .... ?Are you surprised by this source?The key factor in all these types of questions is to use contextual knowledge in your answer (your own knowledge about what the source is dealing with)
27Why did the Nazis publish this illustration Why did the Nazis publish this illustration? Use the source and your own knowledge to explain your answer. [6 marks] ( Jan. 2011)An illustration published in a Nazi children’s book in the 1930’s
28You need to identify the purpose rather than just a valid message: Message – published to show that Jews have become wealthy by taking advantage of Aryan Germans; Jews are sly/devious/untrustworthy/paedophiles. [L2 : 2-3 marks]Purpose – published to get people/children to hate/reject/distrust Jews. [L3 : 4 marks]The caption can be important!
29Unlike the ‘What is the message’ questions, contextual knowledge will raise the level of mark whether you just have a message or the purpose.‘This source was published in a children’s book because race studies formed part of the education of Aryan children. The Nazis blamed the Jews for the problems of Germany and that Jews had become wealthy at the expense of Aryan Germans’. Message + CK = L4 : 5 marks.
30Add purpose to the answer: ‘This source was published to persuade children to reject/distrust Jews. It was in a children’s book because race studies formed part of the education of Aryan children. The Nazis blamed the Jews for the problems of Germany ……’ Level 5 : 6 marks.
31How useful is this source as evidence of Nazi propaganda How useful is this source as evidence of Nazi propaganda? Use the source and your own knowledge to explain your answer. [7 marks]‘As the time for the Fuhrers arrival drew near, the crowd grew restless. Suddenly, the beat of the drums increased and a fleet of black cars rolled into the arena. The stadium looked like a sea of swastikas. Hitler began to speak. The crowd hushed into silence but the drums continued their steady beat. Hitler’s voice cut through the darkness. The crowd began to chant ‘Sieg Heil’ over and over again.’ (A German citizen remembering a Nuremberg rally)
32You need to show how the source is useful using contextual knowledge to explain AND you also need to explain other types of propaganda techniques used by the Nazis:These rallies were organised by Goebbels. They gave a sense of belonging to a great movement which was further inspired by Hitler speaking and the chanting of the crowd. The Nazis recognised that these rallies created a feeling of order. [Level 3: 3 – 4 marks]However, other propaganda methods were also important for spreading the Nazi message, such as radio broadcasts. Cheap radios were made available for the public and the Nazis controlled all the radio stations.[Level 6 : 7 marks]
33Just identifying other forms of propaganda = 5 marks! Just explaining other forms of propaganda = 6 marks!How useful …. The 1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph is enough.
341)How far does the source prove that … 1)How far does the source prove that …..? 2)Are you surprised by this source ….. ?Neither of these types of question have appeared on recent Germany papers but they have on USA papers.1) You need to explain both sides to get top marks – details from the source, supported by relevant contextual knowledge plus other relevant factors not in the source supported by contextual knowledge.2) You need to explain why you are surprised AND not surprised using the source and contextual knowledge support for top marks.
35Grade Boundaries: Max. 75 January 2011 A : 54 B : 46 C : 39 June 2010 Revise carefully & thoroughlyGet the technique right .Get the timing of each question right – follow the advice given on the exam paper.Answer the question asked.