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Korea: 1960 Forward 20. South Korea 1960-1979 Park Chung Hee leads South Korea  Military Dictator  Harsh discipline  Anti-communist  Economic development.

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Presentation on theme: "Korea: 1960 Forward 20. South Korea 1960-1979 Park Chung Hee leads South Korea  Military Dictator  Harsh discipline  Anti-communist  Economic development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Korea: 1960 Forward 20

2 South Korea Park Chung Hee leads South Korea  Military Dictator  Harsh discipline  Anti-communist  Economic development for national security  Fantastic economic growth  Terrible human rights

3 South Korea Under Park Export led growth  Japan, but more so…  Government controls banking completely  Park creates EPB, “Economic Planning Board” – Korea’s equivalent to MITI in Japan  EPB sets targets for industries and growth  Park personally involved Visits owners of Korean Chebol (Korean version of zaibatsu)

4 South Korea Under Park Park personally involved in economic plans  Visits owners of Korean Chebol (Korean version of zaibatsu)  Orders them to take on new industries  Demands that they take on government guaranteed loans to grow  Shuts them down with tax audits, closed off credit, and cancelled import licenses if they don’t comply

5 South Korea Under Park Military IS the government Severely Anti-communist  All political opponents branded as Communists  All opposition accused of being North Korean sympathizers

6 South Korea Under Park Brilliant early economic success Japanese Model – export-led growth  Korean Chebol become mega-firms Very harsh labor policies Harshly anti-democratic politics and business

7 Regionalism in South Korea Park comes from SE Kyongsang (gyeongsang) provinces Kyongsang region benefits most from new economic growth Opposition comes from SW: Cholla (jeolla) provinces Cholla provinces benefit least from economic growth Pro-government, dominant provinces, Kyongsang Opposition provinces, Cholla Neutral provinces

8 Crisis and the Yushin Constitution: Under pressure from US to look democratic Park holds presidential election, 1971 Radical liberal candidate, Kim Dae-Jung nearly wins  Kim comes from Cholla Provinces: Kwangju city Electoral college where Park controls 1/3 of votes fixes the election Protests prompt Park to declare Martial Law Kim Dae-Jung, 1970s

9 Crisis and the Yushin Constitution: Kim Dae-Jung Arrested  Tried for treason  Sentenced to death  Nixon gets sentence reduced to banishment for life Kim Dae-Jung, 1970s

10 Crisis and the Yushin Constitution:  Kim later kidnapped in Tokyo by Korean CIA International incident pressures KCIA to release Kim Kim comes to US for remainder of Park’s presidency Kim Dae-Jung, 1970s

11 Crisis and the Yushin Constitution: Under crisis Park suspends constitution Imposes new, Yushin Constitution, “revitalizing” same characters as Japan’s Meiji “Restoration”  Park named president for life  Criticism of Park defined as treason  Punishment for criticism: Death  President’s powers almost unlimited

12 Yushin Constitution and political opposition Some minor student groups: radical but ineffective, easily squelched Radical Labor: but weak and ineffective

13 Rise of Christian Human Rights and Democracy Movements MOST Korean Christians are deeply pro-government because Park’s government is Anti-communist Liberal Protestant Churches begin democracy efforts in the early 1970s Urban Industrial Missions give pastors a view of labor’s plight Pastors begin to see human rights and democracy as part of the “Mission of Christ”  Organize labor unions  Organize self-help groups  Organize working poor to lobby for improvements

14 Rise of Christian Human Rights and Democracy Movements Easter Sunrise Service: 1973  Reverend Park Hyoung Kyu  First public denunciation of President Park and the Yushin Constitution  Rev. Park goes to jail but is released Not even a pro-government court can convict a Christian Pastor of being a Communist Every Korean KNOWS that Christians can’t be communists

15 Rise of Christian Human Rights and Democracy Movements Protestant Pastors lead and shelter the democracy movement through ’70s. Other groups try, but always get crushed and labeled communist Minjung Theology formalized:  Justification for churches to be political  “Mission of Christ” to liberate the oppressed

16 Rise of Christian Human Rights and Democracy Movements After 100 years, Catholics reenter politics  Bishop Chi arrested 1974 in a clash over control of programming on a TV station funded by his diocese  Vatican II ( ) articulates a “preferential option for the poor”  Latin American Catholics develop Liberation Theology (nearly identical to Minjung Theology among Korean Protestants) By 1980, Cardinal Steven Kim (Su-Hwan) is Korea’s most trusted public figure – among Catholics and non-Catholics alike.  Cardinal Kim supports progressive priests who promote democracy and human rights

17 Opposition Politics Mild, tame opposition party in the National Assembly 1979: tragedy in Masan  Dozens of young women die in locked sweatshop fire  Opposition leader Kim Young-Sam goes to Masan to comfort them  Kim is placed under house arrest Kim Young-Sam

18 End of Yushin Park Chung Hee sends his KCIA Chief, Kim Jae Kyu, to Masan to quell demonstrations Kim Jae Kyu returns to report:  no can do – at least not without a bloodbath  Pres. Park: So? End the demonstrations NOW!  Kim Jae Kyu : Pulls out firearm and assassinates President Park in the Blue House, October 1979

19 New Dictator Brief interim Government: Ch’oi Kyuha Colonel Chun Doo Hwan assigned to investigate Park’s assassination December 31, 1979 Chun arrests all his superior officers Visits the Blue House Interim President Choi resigns Chun takes over as martial law commander May 1980, Chun announces a new constitution and his intent to run for president

20 Kwangju Massacre May 18-21, 1980 Kim Dae Jung returns to Korea and his home town of Kwangju in Spring 1980 Following Chun’s announcement that he will run for President, Students protest in Kwangju Chun dispatches troops to quell the “communist insurrection” Students and townspeople drive troops out

21 Kwangju Massacre May 18-21, 1980 Chun sends in his buddy, Rho Tae Woo and the Black Berets, They slaughter Don’t forget to read Bradley Martin’s article: “Yun Sang-won: The Knowledge in Those Eyes”

22 Kwangju Massacre May 18-21, 1980 US and Carter Administration’s role? … Korean perspectives on America???

23 Chun’s Rule Chun to “usher in democracy”  Promises to oversee the first peaceful transition of power Chun’s stepped up controls  Chun seen as illegitimate  Increases control of social groups No meetings over 7 without special permission Worship services and weddings exempted

24 Churches in Politics Worship and wedding exemption makes liberal churches the core of the democracy movement  They’re the only place to meet Churches assume the center of movements because no one else can Still 90% of Christian churches remain staunchly conservative and pro-government 10% of churches engage in Democracy efforts

25 Human rights and Democracy movement in the early 80s Church influence keeps most democracy movements non-violent, pro-American and Anti- Communist Student movements turn violent: Molotov Cocktails Student movements constantly decapitated as leaders are arrested 1985 “Decompression” policies Chun lifts restrictions because he believes he’s achieved legitimacy

26 Social movements after decompression Liberated from constraints of Christian sponsors Proliferate Radicalize Unable to coordinate among themselves

27 1987 June Uprising and the Democratic Constitution Chun’s term to end January 1988 Seoul Olympics to run Summer 1988 Opposition politicians push for directly elected president – that will allow for real democracy Disorder among opposition: Chun discontinues discussion of election reform 12/86 Park Jong-Chul: torture death 12/86

28 1987 June Uprising and the Democratic Constitution Park Jong-Chul: torture death 12/86 Rho Tae Woo as Government party candidate Opposition groups come together Catholic Church’s role:  Cardinal Steven Kim Suhwan  CPAJ (Catholic Priests Association for Justice)  Myongdong Cathedral announcement Cover-up of Park Jong-Chul’s murder  Sit-in at Myongdong Cathedral

29 1987 June Uprising and the Democratic Constitution NCDC (National Committee for a Democratic Constitution)  Non-violence  Focus JUST on directly elected president  Progressive pressure on government  Led by Pastors and Priests

30 1987 June Uprising and the Democratic Constitution International Context  Olympics: pressure, US and Catholic Countries  June Uprising: 3 rallies  Mass (middle class) Tactics: Phone calls National Anthem Blackout

31 1987 June Uprising and the Democratic Constitution Rho Taewoo folds  Lifts ban on Kim Dae Jung Kim Dae Jung and Kim Young Sam both run Victory: sort of…. Rho Taewoo as President

32 South Korea: Democracy thrives and the economy prospers -- mostly Rho Tae-woo as President  Rising Wages, Stronger opposition parties  Northern Politics: Peace w/ Russia and China Kim Young Sam as President  “Civilian” Government, demilitarization  Oversaw trials of Chun and Rho, then pardoned them

33 South Korea: Democracy thrives and the economy prospers -- mostly Kim Dae Jung as President  First Cholla (southwest) president  Sunshine policy  Overcame financial crisis of

34 South Korea: Democracy thrives and the economy prospers -- mostly Rho Mu Hyun as President  “Independent” Korea that can say “no” to US.  Continued economic growth Lee Myung-Bak as President  Business tycoon, former mayor of Seoul  Political / Social / Religious Conservative


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