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Chapter 5 - Classical Greece

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1 Chapter 5 - Classical Greece

2 The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. It was built in 1897 as part of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition. Athena stands 41'10" tall, making her the largest piece of indoor sculpture in the Western World. The statue of Nike in Athena's right hand stands 6'4" tall. She is gilt with more than eight pounds of gold leaf.

3 Section 2 - The Classical Age
Main Idea The Classical Age of ancient Greece was marked by great achievements, including the development of democracy, and by ferocious wars. Objectives What were the characteristics of Athenian democracy? How did the Greeks manage to win the Persian Wars? What advances were made in the golden age of Athens? What led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War?

4 I. Athenian Democracy Athens’ prosperity due to stable, effective government - world’s first democracy Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. Every male citizen was entitled to attend and had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. All male citizens were allowed to participate in anything that required a government decision

5 I. Athenian Democracy Athens first ruled by kings; later ruled by aristocrats Kouros of Tenea ( BC) Since archaic times long hair was a mark of the aristocrats

6 I. Athenian Democracy Gap between rich and poor led to conflict;
official named Draco reformed laws Draco introduced the first written legislation in Athens. The Draconian punishment outlawed vendetta. His harsh code punished both trivial and serious crimes with death - hence the use of the word “draconian” to describe tough legal measures.

7 I. Athenian Democracy Draco’s harsh laws only worsened conflict; Solon revised laws in 590s BC Solon, an Athenian statesman, lawgiver, and poet, was considered one of Athens’ Seven Sages, or seven wisest men. His reputation is based on his contribution to Athenian law and through political and economic reforms that paved the way for increased participatory democracy in the “great period” of classical Athens.

8 I. Athenian Democracy Solon outlawed debt slavery and encouraged trade; all Athenian men took part in government Slaves were the lowest class in Athenian society, but according to many contemporary accounts they were far less harshly treated than in most other Greek cities. Indeed, one of the criticisms of Athens was that its slaves and freemen were difficult to tell apart.

9 I. Athenian Democracy 541 BC: Peisistratus seized power, ruled as a tyrant; violent but popular Due to a economic crisis, Athens was collapsing in anarchy. A nobleman, Peisistratus, took power and set about restoring order. Peisistratus began to build in and around Athens, reform Athenian religion and religious practices, and devoted his government to cultural reform. He launched a full attack on the power of the nobility. He increased the power of the Assembly and the courts associated with the poorest classes.

10 I. Athenian Democracy Reforms by Cleisthenes set stage for democracy – broke up power of noble families Cleisthenes divided Athens into 10 tribes; Made tribes the basis for elections; Each tribe elected 50 men to serve on Council of 500 who proposed laws; Each tribe elected one general to lead Athenian army

11 I. Athenian Democracy Government consisted of three main bodies:
- Assembly (did most governing) - Council of 500 - Courts In reality, Athenian democracy was not very democratic - only about 10% of the population could take part in government; Only free male Athenians were allowed to vote; Women and others had no role in government

12 I. Athenian Democracy Some officials had special roles:
- generals who led city in war - archon acted as head of both assembly and Council of 500


14 II. The Persian Wars

15 II. The Persian Wars 499 BC: Greek colonies in Ionia rebelled against Persian rule

16 II. The Persian Wars Ionian Greeks asked for help; Athens sent aid but Persians put down the revolt Greek Hoplite Greek Phalanx

17 II. The Persian Wars Revolt angered Persian emperor Darius; sought revenge by attacking Greek mainland

18 II. The Persian Wars 490 BC - Persian fleet carrying thousands of troops came ashore near Marathon

19 Persian Infantry formation
II. The Persian Wars Greeks charged in phalanx formation; battle ended when Persians retreated Greek phalanx Persian Infantry formation

20 Xerxes (519 BC-465 BC) was king of Persia from 486-465 BC
II. The Persian Wars Darius planned second invasion but died; his son Xerxes planned an attack Xerxes (519 BC-465 BC) was king of Persia from BC

21 II. The Persian Wars 480 BC -Xerxes set out with huge army, navy, animals, weapons, and supplies

22 II. The Persian Wars Spartan defense of Thermopylae bought time for the Greeks to prepare a defense

23 II. The Persian Wars Persians attacked and burned Athens but needed ships to bring supplies; Greeks destroyed Persian fleet in Battle of Salamis Xerxes was sure of victory. He had his throne placed on a hill overlooking the sea, in part to savor his victory and in part so his commanders would know that their king was watching them

24 II. The Persian Wars 479 BC - Athens and Sparta joined forces, defeated Persians at Plataea, ending Persian Wars

25 III. The Golden Age of Athens
After Persian Wars, Athens “golden age”; became center of Greek culture and politics

26 III. The Golden Age of Athens
Persia still a threat; 140 city-states formed the Delian League, led by Athens

27 III. The Golden Age of Athens
Treasury kept on island of Delos; Athens made all decisions, creating resentment

28 A. Rebuilding Athens Athens rebuilt due to Pericles and money from League’s treasury

29 A. Rebuilding Athens Rebuilding began on Acropolis; new Parthenon dedicated to Athena

30 A. Rebuilding Athens Port expanded, roads built, walls constructed around the city

31 B. The Age of Pericles Pericles most influential politician; elected as one of Athens’ generals

32 Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp von Foltz
B. The Age of Pericles Encouraged participation in government and spreading of democracy Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp von Foltz

33 B. The Age of Pericles Was a patron of the arts – Parthenon and other monuments; hired artists and sculptors

34 B. The Age of Pericles Trade brought great wealth; merchants from all over moved to Athens, making it cosmopolitan

35 IV. The Peloponnesian War

36 IV. The Peloponnesian War
Athens was richest, mightiest polis; Sparta wanted to end its dominance Athens in the time of Pericles

37 IV. The Peloponnesian War
Sparta headed Peloponnesian League; tensions built with the Delian League

38 IV. The Peloponnesian War
431 BC – Athens feared Sparta’s army while Sparta feared Athens’ navy; mutual fear led to war

39 IV. The Peloponnesian War
Spartan army invaded the Attica Peninsula, laid siege to Athens

40 IV. The Peloponnesian War
Athenian navy able to supply Athens by ship - siege lasted 27 years Control of the Aegean Sea ensured that the grain ships could reach the Athenian harbor of the Piraeus safely. The corridor guaranteed that grain could be transported to the fortified city without any threat from enemy infantry

41 IV. The Peloponnesian War
430 to 429 BC – a plague struck Athens, killing Pericles and changing course of war; a truce began in 421 BC The plague is said to have killed one in three of Athens’ inhabitants, including its leader, Pericles

42 IV. The Peloponnesian War
415 BC - Athens attacked Syracuse and was defeated; Sparta destroyed Athenian fleet

43 IV. The Peloponnesian War
Sparta united with the Persians and forced Athens’ surrender in 404 BC The Spartans attacked Athens and were soon joined by the Persians. For awhile the Athenians hung on. But in 405, their navy was destroyed in a surprise attack, and by the next year the situation was hopeless. In 404 BC, the Athenians surrendered totally to the Spartans, who tore down the walls of the city, barred them from ever having a navy, and installed their own oligarchic government, the Thirty. The Age of Athens, the Age of Pericles, the Classical Age, the Athenian Empire, had come to an end.

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