2 The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. It was built in 1897 as part of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition. Athena stands 41'10" tall, making her the largest piece of indoor sculpture in the Western World. The statue of Nike in Athena's right hand stands 6'4" tall. She is gilt with more than eight pounds of gold leaf.
3 Section 2 - The Classical Age Main IdeaThe Classical Age of ancient Greece was marked by great achievements, including the development of democracy, and by ferocious wars.ObjectivesWhat were the characteristics of Athenian democracy?How did the Greeks manage to win the Persian Wars?What advances were made in the golden age of Athens?What led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War?
4 I. Athenian DemocracyAthens’ prosperity due to stable, effective government - world’s first democracyDirect participation was the key to Athenian democracy. Every male citizen was entitled to attend and had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. All male citizens were allowed to participate in anything that required a government decision
5 I. Athenian DemocracyAthens first ruled by kings; later ruled by aristocratsKouros of Tenea ( BC) Since archaic times long hair was a mark of the aristocrats
6 I. Athenian Democracy Gap between rich and poor led to conflict; official named Draco reformed lawsDraco introduced the first written legislation in Athens. The Draconian punishment outlawed vendetta. His harsh code punished both trivial and serious crimes with death - hence the use of the word “draconian” to describe tough legal measures.
7 I. Athenian DemocracyDraco’s harsh laws only worsened conflict; Solon revised laws in 590s BCSolon, an Athenian statesman, lawgiver, and poet, was considered one of Athens’ Seven Sages, or seven wisest men. His reputation is based on his contribution to Athenian law and through political and economic reforms that paved the way for increased participatory democracy in the “great period” of classical Athens.
8 I. Athenian DemocracySolon outlawed debt slavery and encouraged trade; all Athenian men took part in governmentSlaves were the lowest class in Athenian society, but according to many contemporary accounts they were far less harshly treated than in most other Greek cities. Indeed, one of the criticisms of Athens was that its slaves and freemen were difficult to tell apart.
9 I. Athenian Democracy541 BC: Peisistratus seized power, ruled as a tyrant; violent but popularDue to a economic crisis, Athens was collapsing in anarchy. A nobleman, Peisistratus, took power and set about restoring order. Peisistratus began to build in and around Athens, reform Athenian religion and religious practices, and devoted his government to cultural reform. He launched a full attack on the power of the nobility. He increased the power of the Assembly and the courts associated with the poorest classes.
10 I. Athenian DemocracyReforms by Cleisthenes set stage for democracy – broke up power of noble familiesCleisthenes divided Athens into 10 tribes; Made tribes the basis for elections; Each tribe elected 50 men to serve on Council of 500 who proposed laws; Each tribe elected one general to lead Athenian army
11 I. Athenian Democracy Government consisted of three main bodies: - Assembly (did most governing)- Council of 500- CourtsIn reality, Athenian democracy was not very democratic - only about 10% of the population could take part in government; Only free male Athenians were allowed to vote; Women and others had no role in government
12 I. Athenian Democracy Some officials had special roles: - generals who led city in war- archon acted as head of bothassembly and Council of 500
15 II. The Persian Wars499 BC: Greek colonies in Ionia rebelled against Persian rule
16 II. The Persian WarsIonian Greeks asked for help; Athens sent aid but Persians put down the revoltGreek HopliteGreek Phalanx
17 II. The Persian WarsRevolt angered Persian emperor Darius; sought revenge by attacking Greek mainland
18 II. The Persian Wars490 BC - Persian fleet carrying thousands of troops came ashore near Marathon
19 Persian Infantry formation II. The Persian WarsGreeks charged in phalanx formation; battle ended when Persians retreatedGreek phalanxPersian Infantry formation
20 Xerxes (519 BC-465 BC) was king of Persia from 486-465 BC II. The Persian WarsDarius planned second invasion but died; hisson Xerxes planned an attackXerxes (519 BC-465 BC) was king of Persia from BC
21 II. The Persian Wars480 BC -Xerxes set out with huge army, navy, animals, weapons, and supplies
22 II. The Persian WarsSpartan defense of Thermopylae bought time for the Greeks to prepare a defense
23 II. The Persian WarsPersians attacked and burned Athens but needed ships to bring supplies; Greeks destroyed Persian fleet in Battle of SalamisXerxes was sure of victory. He had his throne placed on a hill overlooking the sea, in part to savor his victory and in part so his commanders would know that their king was watching them
24 II. The Persian Wars479 BC - Athens and Sparta joined forces, defeated Persians at Plataea, ending Persian Wars
25 III. The Golden Age of Athens After Persian Wars, Athens “golden age”; became center of Greek culture and politics
26 III. The Golden Age of Athens Persia still a threat; 140 city-states formed the Delian League, led by Athens
27 III. The Golden Age of Athens Treasury kept on island of Delos; Athens made all decisions, creating resentment
28 A. Rebuilding AthensAthens rebuilt due to Pericles and money from League’s treasury
29 A. Rebuilding AthensRebuilding began on Acropolis; new Parthenon dedicated to Athena
30 A. Rebuilding AthensPort expanded, roads built, walls constructed around the city
31 B. The Age of PericlesPericles most influential politician; elected as one of Athens’ generals
32 Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp von Foltz B. The Age of PericlesEncouraged participation in government and spreading of democracyPericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp von Foltz
33 B. The Age of PericlesWas a patron of the arts – Parthenon and other monuments; hired artists and sculptors
34 B. The Age of PericlesTrade brought great wealth; merchants from all over moved to Athens, making it cosmopolitan
36 IV. The Peloponnesian War Athens was richest, mightiest polis; Sparta wanted to end its dominanceAthens in the time of Pericles
37 IV. The Peloponnesian War Sparta headed Peloponnesian League; tensions built with the Delian League
38 IV. The Peloponnesian War 431 BC – Athens feared Sparta’s army while Sparta feared Athens’ navy; mutual fear led to war
39 IV. The Peloponnesian War Spartan army invaded the Attica Peninsula, laid siege to Athens
40 IV. The Peloponnesian War Athenian navy able to supply Athens by ship - siege lasted 27 yearsControl of the Aegean Sea ensured that the grain ships could reach the Athenian harbor of the Piraeus safely. The corridor guaranteed that grain could be transported to the fortified city without any threat from enemy infantry
41 IV. The Peloponnesian War 430 to 429 BC – a plague struck Athens, killing Pericles and changing course of war; a truce began in 421 BCThe plague is said to have killed one in three of Athens’ inhabitants, including its leader, Pericles
42 IV. The Peloponnesian War 415 BC - Athens attacked Syracuse and was defeated; Sparta destroyed Athenian fleet
43 IV. The Peloponnesian War Sparta united with the Persians and forced Athens’ surrender in 404 BCThe Spartans attacked Athens and were soon joined by the Persians. For awhile the Athenians hung on. But in 405, their navy was destroyed in a surprise attack, and by the next year the situation was hopeless. In 404 BC, the Athenians surrendered totally to the Spartans, who tore down the walls of the city, barred them from ever having a navy, and installed their own oligarchic government, the Thirty. The Age of Athens, the Age of Pericles, the Classical Age, the Athenian Empire, had come to an end.