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PARENT PROGRAMS By Lynette Okeng’o, PhD. Presentation Outline Definition Rationale for parent programs Factors that affect parenting Parent support programs.

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Presentation on theme: "PARENT PROGRAMS By Lynette Okeng’o, PhD. Presentation Outline Definition Rationale for parent programs Factors that affect parenting Parent support programs."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARENT PROGRAMS By Lynette Okeng’o, PhD

2 Presentation Outline Definition Rationale for parent programs Factors that affect parenting Parent support programs Planning for effective programming Elements of effective parenting programs

3 Definition Parenting is the nurturing of children through ongoing care and support that enables them to survive and thrive. o Parenting is a process o Parenting is multi-dimensional o Parenting is an investment

4 Why Focus on Parenting? Scientific evidence shows that parenting plays a key role in: Improved cognitive and language development (reading, academic achievement) oIn 2 parent families 50% of children with highly involved fathers get A’s vs. 30% of low father involvement children (Hofferth, 2003) oParents’ use of harsh punishment was negatively associated with scholastic achievement grades (Amato & Fowler 2002) Improved child survival (low birth weight, IMR, U5MR). o Parent education programs strengthen the capacity of parents to better care for new born children, meet nutritional needs, respond appropriately in the care of sick children, prevent accidents, adhere to immunization schedules etc,

5 Social and emotional development (gender socialization, peer relationships, drug & alcohol abuse, juvenile crime) o Parents’ use of harsh punishment was positively associated behavior problems (Amato & Fowler, 2002). o Problem drinking in adolescence is related to parental modeling, parental reward structures and the quality of family affectional interaction (Shedler J & Block J. 1990) o Parental monitoring and positive relations were found to be protective factors for disruptive behavior and the selection of substance-using friends (Cohen et al, 1994) o Higher levels of parental warmth were associated with lower levels of initial gang involvement for adolescents (Walker- Barnes & Mason, 2001)

6 Why Focus on Parenting? The child should grow up in a family environment, within an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality (CRC-Preamble) All children have a right to parental love and care (Article 3,5, 9, 10, 18, 20 & 21) States have an obligation to render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities …. (Article 18) This education should include basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantage of breastfeeding, hygiene, environmental sanitation, prevention of accidents and guidance on family planning (Article 24)

7 Parenting as a Right Parenting is not a favour it implies a correlative duty or obligation It is universal not specific to certain groups It requires attention to both outcome and process Parenting is indivisible

8 Factors that Affect Parenting Culture Parental experiences and characteristics Family structures and dynamics Child factors Economic and political factors Parents often want to do their best but require education and support to provide an environment that will maximize their children’s potential

9 Types of parenting programs Parent education that targets specific child outcomes Parent intervention programs for high risk families Parent support programs that seek to empower parents to positively impact their children’s development Parent involvement programs Effective programs seek to educate and support parents in providing strong foundations for children

10 Planning parenting programs Situation analysis Program Design Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation

11 Situation Analysis Important step that enhances effectiveness, relevance and sustainability of planned program It seeks to answer the following questions oWhat is the situation of children (is there a problem) oWhat is contributing to the situation oWhat are the existing child rearing practices (positive, negative and gaps) oWho is key in solving the problem and what are their capacity gaps oWhat are other partners doing This process is only complete after validation and consensus building

12 Program design Based on the situation analysis and includes: oProgram vision, mission, goals and objectives oTarget group, program activities and work plan oClear co-ordination and accountability structure oResource mobilization and allocation oQuality assurance system oMonitoring and evaluation plan and tools It is critical that alliances are built with different stakeholders with strong community engagement

13 Program Design: Planning program activities The following decisions have to be made: o oContent (health, nutrition, early stimulation, social and emotional development, materials development, income generation, financial management, family life) o oCurriculum (existing, adapted, creation of contextualized curriculum) o oCapacity building for trainers of facilitators o oDelivery mode (home visits, centre based, parent groups/ networks, media) o oDuration and timings o oPartnership with other service providers

14 Implementation, M&E For effective implementation, M&E ensure: For effective implementation, M&E ensure: Community mobilization, sensitization and engagement Free flow of information with the purpose of strengthening the program Teamwork among all players Flexibility to ensure objectives are met M&E information should then be used to improve future planning

15 Elements of effective parent programs Respect parents/caregivers and believe that parents want to do the best possible for their children Build on existing positive practices and structures Focus on systems affecting parents and children (ecological) Tap into the benefits of collaborations Skilled, sensitive and emotionally balanced staff Intervene at critical points Long-term and sustainable

16 The parents exist to teach the child, but also they must learn what the child has to teach them; and the child has a very great deal to teach them. - Arnold Bennett-

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